EEB214H1 Lecture 12: Speciation Part 1

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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Jennifer Carpenter

EEB214 Lecture 12: Speciation 1 • It’s easier to lose a trait then to build it • if mutation arises and it breaks one protein it can break the whole process Speciation • Darwin’s first work was titled “the origins of species” but it was ironic because it’s not about what makes population split to make new organisms • What is it that keeps two groups apart and what makes 2 groups distinct? • Each organism had a type/perfect model and each species was a copy of that • What is species? Are species arbitrary? o A species isn’t a thing, we’re opposing on nature that isn’t real o Ernst Mayr: studies speciation ▪ Tested this: if different groups of people actually assigned different species to the same group ▪ e.g., Dutch (Papua) New Guinea – locals recognize 136 different birds, while ornithologist recognize 137 ▪ they went and decided how many species they saw on this island o our definition of species needs to distinguish between ▪ animals, plants, micros, and fossils ▪ work across the entire breath of live • The morphological species concept: o Two individuals with similar morphological features are the same o individuals that have different morphological are different species o e.g., works with fossils, certain plants (not Euphorb and Cactus) o morphological: physical characteristics o E.coli, Pseudomonas [does not work in a lot of micros], animals o a lot of sexual dimorphism there’s a problem because we cannot tell them apart o a lot of variation of what organisms look like in any given population = morphological species concept • The biological species concept: o A species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural population, which is reproductively isolated from
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