EEB 267 - Lecture 1

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Department
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course
EEB267H1
Professor
Deborah Mc Lennan
Semester
Winter

Description
EEB 267: How to cope with phylogenetic trees (a review) Victoria xAlbert
 Alice Harold x Maude George Albert Rose x Frederick David x Peggy Victoria Eric x Susan Jennifer x Alan Just as individuals in a family are connected by “bonds of Tiffany x donor 14453 Hope Jason Brittany Megan x Sean blood” (reproduction) .... individual species are connected by evolutionary ties (the processes that produce species) clouded leopard Dion Moonbeam
 snow leopard tiger jaguar leopard lion Phylogenetic trees are reconstructed by a method called phylogenetic systematics This method clusters groups of organisms based on shared unique characters (**** such characters are called synapomorphies). For example, you share the presence of a backbone with cats, but not with butterflies: The presence of wings allows us to identify a butterfly as distinct from a cat or a person. It does not tell us how butterflies, cats and people are related to one another. cat (Felis catus) human beings (Homo sapiens) backbone (synapomorphy)
 The presence of a backbone allows us to cluster cats with human beings, to the exclusion of butterflies. We have now constructed the hypothesis that cats are more closely related to human beings than they are to butterflies. Name of the taxon: How to read a phylogenetic tree clouded leopard snow leopard tiger jaguar leopard lion long pointy canines this is the ancestor of the group Panthera The character “long, pointy canines” evolved in the ancestor of the group Panthera and has been transmitted to all of its descendants (clouded leopard, snow leopard, tiger, jaguar, leopard and lion) ***** Taxon (plural = taxa) just means “group”. A taxon can be a population, species, genus, family, order, etc. In this course I will be talking about phylogenetic relationships among very large groups, not individual species. And, in general, I do NOT expect you know whether a group is a “family” or an “order” or a “phylum”. It is more important that you understand how groups are related to one another. Different ways of showing characters on a phylogenetic tree clouded leopard snow leopard tiger jaguar leopard lion a robust phylogenetic tree is supported by many characters clouded leopard snow leopard tiger jaguar leopard lion stripes in this course I wi
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