Systematic Botany - James Eckenwalder
January 31, 2013
Term Test Information
Short answer questions
Names of things and listing them
Know ranks - which ranks are required and which are extras, no made up ones like cohorts.
Differences in endings between algae and fungi and other plants.
Know the plants that Linnaeus used in his ranks.
Terminology heavy test.
Know the terminology from handouts that was used.
Draw one or two leaves based on the description
Know the contents of the handouts that we're given.
Know the periods of taxonomy and what is happening in these periods. Know the names that are
used for the periods. Remember the prominent names of each period.
There can be true and false, mix and match, etc.
Possibly know definitions.
Think how folk biological classifications relate to scientific taxonomy. How does Linnaeus
History of Taxonomy
Natural systems (19th Century) - de Jussieus were very important, where their arrangement
began in the botanical garden. De Candolles in Switzerland were also key players. Alphonse
carried the world flora idea by Linnaeus but he made the first real monographs appear under his
leadership. Natural systems were based on inherent and natural classifications.
Natural theology - the underlying systems were God.
In the natural systems, there were fairly standardized big chunks of angiosperms. Most
groups/systems recognized monocotyledonae as a group (ex. Palm trees, usually has one
seed, parallel veins, and their flower parts come in threes). Dicotyledons have two in their
seeds. They usually have branching veins that hook into networks, and their flower parts
are in fours and fives.
Dicotyledons were subdivided into Apetalae (no petals), monochlamydeae (unisexual
flowers), choripetalae (plants were perfect flowers with both male and female parts; petals
are separate from one another: split into apocarpus (carpals were made into separate pistols
like raspberries and blackberries) and syncarpus (individual parts are congealed to a single
pistol. Sympetalae have side to side attached petals (separated into groups with superior
Within these groups, there were orders, described generally