Systemic Botany – James Eckenwalder
February 12, 2013
• A lot of points of difference with traditional classification. For example, the proteales which
contains three families (Nelumbonaceae [lotus], PlaAanaceae, Proteaceae). It isn't obvious
what the classification is (it is based on molecular classification).
• The rules of nomenclature go back to Linnaeus. He did his nomenclature rules in a series of
publications:1736, 1737 and 1751.
• Philosophia botanica told us that we should avoid homonyms (two plants with the same
• He looked for measure of stability: we shouldn't have to change the same every time a new
publication came out.
• We should preserve hierarchy and subordination of taxa (stable hierarchical system).
It wasn't a fully developed system of rules, it was a set of individual statements.
• The first real system of rules was established in 1813 in Theorie Elementaire de la Botanique
by Angustin de Condolle. This was the set of rules that he published on classifications and
systematics. There fundamentally wasn't any reason for anybody to adopt them.
• In 1867, the first botanical congress was held in Paris. There were only 233 people attending,
almost all from Europe. They adopted the de Condolle's work which was later known as the
Paris Code. It specified the ranks that should be used and conditions for valid publication (the
issue of when you publish a name, did you really publish it or not).
• An epithet has priority only within the genus in which is was originally published. You don't
necessarily have to use the original epithet in other works. This is the Q rule (?)
• 1890; proposed another set of rules separate from the Paris Code. This was known as the
Rochester Code. There was the idea of types. The type principal said that every name has to
have a type. Types are just a specimen they use as reference to the name in which it is attached
to. There is also strict and unlimited rule of priority. If there is a name that is attached to the
plant and there is no other name, that is the name that you use. This includes page priority. If
the organism is described twice in the same work, the name on the earlier page is used.
• Alice Eastwood
• There were groups of people competing to describe Lupinus plants
• Tautonyms - the specific epithet repeats the generic name
• Autonyms - automatically created nam