EEB384H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Carl Linnaeus, Polyphyly, Paraphyly

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14 Feb 2016
Carl Linnaeus places reptiles and amphibians together as "Amphibia" in system
Cold body: Mainly ectothermic but not generally cold -maintain high body
temperatures by getting heat from external force (sun)
Some reptiles and amphibians that can generate their own body heat (ex.
Leatherback sea turtles)
Mainly pale: some very brights coloured lizards , tree frogs , diversity of colors
Cartilaginous skeleton : they have osified skeletons,
Calculating eye: eye has been lost various times and is less functional in
amphibian groups
Offensive voice: some do not vocalize
Linnaeus was wrong to place reptiles and amphibians together in the same
biological group , not only are they distinct groups , they are not each other's
closest relatives
They are both polyphyletic and paraphyletic (break both cardinal rules of modern
phylogenetic taxonomy)
Features that reptiles and amphibians share
Ectothermy- the need to obtain energy from external sources to raise body
temperatures to levels suitable for normal activity
Leads to similiarities in:
Body size and shape = large bodies require internal heating
Metabolic rate = low rate because energy not expended on heat
generation. Important in ecosystems , they make up a lot of biomass
because all the energy that goes into them the energy devoted to tissue
development and in birds it is heat
Biomass = high biomass because energy goes towards tissue production
rather than temperature maintenance
What makes amphibians unique among tetrapods?
Amniotic egg, sensitive to desiccation
Skin usually moist, thin, smooth and permeable to water and gases*(* evolution
More than one clade, doesn't include
common ancestor = poly
Don't include all of the decendants of
recent common ancestors of all the
species in the group =para
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