EEB386H1 Lecture 11: Lecture 11 - Conservation

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University of Toronto St. George
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Michael Denny

Lecture 11: Conservation Extinction  Species diversity = snapshot o Some are recent, some are perhaps declining o Some extinction is natural process o Have made some estimates on background rate of extinction o Typical species have 1-2 million year window o = background extinction  Recently has been human-accelerated extinction for many vertebrates o About 20-30X background rate  Avian Extinction Factors  Over-exploitation  Invasive species o Largely other vertebrates that prey on birds o New viruses (west Nile)  Pollution o DDT in North America  Habitat loss  Climate change (natural catastrophes) Bird Extinction factors  Number of extinct species of birds  Rank invasive/problem species as # 1 factor  Passenger Pigeon extinction: o Overhunting o Exploitation of oak forest  Hunting & trapping (extinction of 50+ species)  Logging + wood harvesting + agriculture = habitat loss  Climate change + severe weather caused extinction of a few species  Overexploitation  We harvest and use birds in varieties of ways  Number of species  ~75 parrot species that have been used in the pet trade o Pulled out of wild and sold for pets  Doves and pigeons under threat o Mostly for food  Osprey, Killers, Hawks, eagles o Hunted o Farmers shoot birds of prey  Ducks, geese, swans o Food  Seabirds o By-catch = diving seabirds get caught in drift nets o Common problem for albatrosses Wild birds Human Uses  Pets (parrots/songbirds) o Over 3000 species as pets  Food o 1000 + species used  Sports o Falcon hunting, roosting fighting  Fashion o Feathers in fashion Slide  Tribesman from New Guinea  Society is male dominated  Are like birds of paradise o Lekking system of courtship  Annual events: o Men dress up and perform elaborate dances o Costuming is almost entirely made of bird of paradise feathers Map  Solomon Islands east of New Guinea  Honeyguide that’s sexually dimorphic Feathers as a currency  Use feathers as currency  Traded feathers  Feather rolls: o People holding long beam with feather rolls on it  High exploitation rates  But honeyguides have done fine even though intensive hunting  Was special person in village that made the currency Invasive Species  Black rat  Preying on chicks in flycatcher nest in New Zealand Historic Bird Extinctions (post 1500)  Scale from 0 to 40 o US: Relatively few historic bird extinctions  Bird extinctions concentrated on oceanic islands o Hawaii: 20+ extinctions o New Zealand: 20+ extinctions o Mauritius, Reunion, Rodrigues  Concentrated on oceanic islands Case Study: Oceania region  Oceanic islands: (Galapagos, Hawaii, New Zealand)  Oceanic islands were quite rich in small populations and quite diverse  When have birds colonizing geographically disparate islands have a lot of speciation (high diversity) Lapita colonization (4000 y)  Bird extinctions in Oceania were human-induced but in indirect way  ~5000 years ago, first human colonisations start coming out from SE Asia  Headed into Ocea
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