eeb 388 lec 1.docx

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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

lec1 9/13/2012 12:12:00 PM 6,000  65000 mammals known  more dung beetles than mammals  disproportional effect on the planet  net consumers of the biomass o more than other vertebrates, and a larger metabolic rate Mark engstrom, 4165865517, [email protected], 586 5589 Mammal characteristics  Mammals have mammary glands (unique) o AND lactate  Probably modified sweat glands  Composition of milk varies greatly mammals that grow really fast whale 50-60% fat and high protein o And parental care is more  Hair epidermal structure, insulation, sensory organ, no homologe (unique)  3 inner ear mones (stapes,incus,malleus) increases efficiency of sound conduction of high frequencies relative to other vertebrates,improve conduction of sound  new jaw articulation with the squamal bone in the skull, dentary squamosal jaw articulation (unique)  reduction of bones in the skeleton increased efficiency of processing food  endothermicnot unique so are birds o to be endotherm stronger heart to circulate blood o mammals and birds single aorta coming out of the heart to maintain high blood pressure o same adaptation but independent of one another for mammals and birds o also 4 chambered heart not unique  can separate pulmonary and systemic blood o high and constant body temp o high metabolic rate (10x reptile)  to maintain high body temp 1  smaller the mammal greater surface area to volume aka higher metabolic rat to maintain constant body temp aka more food, more mammals are small  rare mammal is big and diurnal  costly but allows you to be more active more of the time  have to intake a lot of biomass to maintain a size of a lizard who consumes much less  increases locomotor efficiency  specialized skin glands, sweat glands, subaceous glands (lubricant hair and fur, sensory glands  all share derived characters (define groups phylogenetically)  “mammal is a hairy reasonably intelligent usually nocturnal endothermic vertebrate which feeds its offspring milk from mammary glands”  mammals are primitively nocturnal about 80%, humans diurnal  good sense of sight, hearing, exceptional sense of smell (olfaction)  many mammals rely on smell for sense marking(nocturnal)  many mammals have more rods in their eyes than cones (good at night) senses tuned to nocturnal lifestyle  mammals are monophyletic shared derived characters indicate that they have a single common origin  very good sense of sight mammals see very well, rely heavily  specialized senses of hearing  especially olfaction MOST RELY ON THIS THEN ANY OTHER SENSE  circulatory system o changes in this related to endothermy o pulmonary and systemic systems are separated o high blood pressure o mo
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