ENG100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Optical Printer, Whip Pan, Telephoto Lens

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Published on 10 Apr 2013
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French for “put into the scene”: everything in front of the camera
includes all elements cinema shares with theatre
o props, sets, costumes, lighting, actors
o closely connected with sense of “realism” and verisimilitude; establishes place and time
three point lighting
o key light, back light, fill light
o low-key lighting; creates strong contrast between light and dark areas of shot; accentuates shadows
o expressionism
focal length: distance from center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus; determines the
perspective relations of the space represented on the flat screen
telephoto lens: lens with focal length of at least 75mm; capable of magnifying and flattering distant objects
wide angle lens: lens with a short focal length (typically less than 35mm)
depth of field: the range or distance before and behind the main focus of a shot within which objects remain relatively
sharp and clear
rack or pull focus: a dramatic change in focus from one object to another
Citizen Kane Deep Focus & Long Take
deep focus: focus in which multiple planes in the shot, close and distant, are all in focus simultaneously; usually
achieved with a wide-angle lens and narrow aperture
long take: a shot of relatively long duration
when Welles made Citizen Kane (1941), this was not the typical style in Hollywood films
Realism and Citizen Kane
Andre Bazin: French critic who preferred shooting in depth and long takes (as opposed to the shallow focus and
multiple edits more typical to Hollywood continuity style at the time); he claimed:
o the long take allowed for the recording of the actual duration of the action
o shooting in depth “brings the spectator into a relation with the image close to that which he enjoys in reality”
o and it requires a “more active mental attitude on the part of the viewer”
o all of this led him to conclude that this method was more “faithful to reality”; produced a greater sense of realism,
which, he argued, should be the goal of cinema
montage sequence: a segment of film that summarizes a topic or compresses the passage of time into a combination of
brief symbolic or typical images edited together
swish pan (or whip pan): a very fast movement of the camera from side to side, causing the images to blur into
indistinct streaks
special effects, process shots, optical printing
o rear projection: technique for combining a foreground action with a background action filmed separately,
foreground filmed in front of a screen, onto which the previously filmed footage is projected
o matte shot
CK: The Cinematographic Plan
“deep focus cinematography: long takes”
“the avoidance of conventional intercutting through such devices as multi-plan compositions and camera movement”
“elaborate camera choreography”
Narrative Structure
story vs. plot
o story or “diegesis”: includes everything in the world of the story, including not only what is shown, but what is
implied to have taken place
o plot: the order iin which events are arranged to create a chronology
o linear vs. non-linear flashback