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- Transubstantiation – great divisions that fuelled reprimation
oBread and wine literally was flesh and blood
oLuther argues that there is no literal transubstantiation but you
symbolically take flesh and blood through bread and wine
- Move from literal to figurative transubstantiation: What happens to world?
oNo more miracles
Religious dispute changes to science
•Now, who gets to speak the truth?
- Royal Society – becomes authoritative voice of institution of science
oLiterally tells truth of nature of world
oIs water always water? Is it always made of 2 hydrogen particles and 1
- Ordinary world – world that is NEVER going to be subject to miracles, magic,
and extraordinary supernatural events. World is of law, predictability, and
experiments made that can be repeated
oBeings who inhabit it (us) are ordinary too; ordinary people
- 18th century – dissolution of core (institutions) – articulated idea of society (vague
generalized concept for whole bunch of people)
oCan’t identify with society like a class, village, etc.
- Human becomes central to the way we think of each other and world we’re in
- Pilgrim’s Progress – transitional
- Humanist world – salvation occurs in minds of individuals; individuals that make
- Christians in mental struggle in novel
oEvents in story are in “his” psychic history and figures that consistently
remains is the path
oFigures generated by “his” mind
Ex: sloth, gluttony, etc.
•Christian confrontation (figures that Christians have to
confront because of belief that people are going to die and
must face judgement)
- In Christian’s world, all figures are related to him
oReality of Christians
- Christian stands as a pre-figure of protagonist of novel
oNot a fully realized character
Between 2D world of Byzantine icon and 2D world of novel and
- Concept of person/character who is identifiable as someone like the reader in
oTransformation of character in novel
oRepresentation of real people as recognizable characters
- What is Christian’s transformation?
oBecomes more independent and confident
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