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CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
English (1,000)
Lecture 10

ENG239H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: J. R. R. Tolkien, Wolfgang Iser, Postcolonialism


Department
English
Course Code
ENG239H1
Professor
Mike Johnstone
Lecture
10

Page:
of 4
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Lecture'10''Who'Fears'Death!
" who!fears!death,!parts!1!and!2!
o Okorafor!vs.!Tolkien!
o Readings!and/as!the!Other!
o Orientalism,!postcolonialism,!and!immersive!fantasy!
o Language!and!the!building!of!a!world!
!
Okorafor'vs.'Tolkien!
!"#$%&'()*+",-*".*/0%*1&'2)3#""4)*"5%,*6##*/0%*.6'/6)7*8,&//%'*&'*9'2#&)0*:*6'-*&'*46'7*"/0%,*#6'2;62%)*:*)&'<%*&/)*
=;>#&<6/&"'?*4")/*);>)%@;%'/*8,&/%,)*".*.6'/6)7*6,%*%&/0%,*&4&/6/&'2*0&4*",*%#)%*-%)=%,6/%#7*/,7&'2*/"*%)<6=%*0&)*
&'.#;%'<%3AA+B!1*%)/6>#&)0%)*46'7*"*.*/0%*<06,6</%,&)/&<)*".*2%',%*.6'/6)73/0%*.&'6#*<"'/,&>;/&"'*46-%*>7*!"#$%&'*
/"*#6/%,*/8%'/&%/0C<%'/;,7*.6'/6)7*86)*/06/*the$default$cultural$model$for$fantasy$was$the$Middle$AgesA*:*
9-86,-*D64%)*
" Tolkein!sets!many!of!the!key!aspects!of!fantasy!–!with!particularly!LOTR!trilogy!
" LORT!was!popular!worldwide!
" LOTR!was!voted!best!novel,!Tolkein!was!best!writer!in!the!UK!
" Important!for!normalizing!the!idea/legitimacy!of!a!secondary!world!!creation!of,!complexity!of!a!
secondary!world!
" Importance!of!setting!
" Important!to!resist!Tolkeins!fantasy:!may!not!question!ideological!positions!
o Limits!writers!!!worked!in!the!past!!!should!try!something!new!
!
EF*26)=%-*8&/0*0",,",A*F*<";#-'(/*/6$%*47*06'-*.,"4*G6=6()*6,4A*F/*86)*.;)%-*/"*0&4A*H7*)6'-*<"#",%-*)$&'*/6=%,%-*
/"*0&)*2,%7*>,"8'*)$&'*.,"4*47*=6#4A*I*4";'-*".*4&'2#%-*.#%)0A*F*)/6,/%-*)<,%64&'2A*F/*<6;20/*&'*47*/0,"6/*6'-*F*
<";20%-A*!0%'*F*)/6,%-A*G6=6()*<0%)/*86)*)#"8#7*4"5&'2*;=*6'-*-"8'J*;=*6'-*-"8'3*0%*86)*>,%6/0&'2K*F*86)*>"/0*
,%=;#)%-*6'-*-%)=%,6/%#7*0"=%.;#A*F*/""$*6*-%%=*>,%6/0*6'-*<,&%-J*E+&5%J*G6=6K*+&5%KL*I*=6&,*".*06'-)*)%//#%-*"'*47*
8,&)/)A*F*$'%8*%M6</#7*80")%*/0%7*8%,%A*B'%*".*0&)*.&'2%,)*86)*>,"$%'*6'-*>6'-62%-A*F.*0%*-&-'(/*2%/*0&)*06'-)*"..*
4%J*F(-*0;,/*0&4*.6,*8",)%*/06'*F*06-*.&5%*-67)*=,&",A*EB'7%)"'8;JL*I,"*)6&-*&'/"*47*%6,J*@;&<$#7*/6$&'2*0&)*06'-)*
.,"4*47*8,&)/)A*B0J*0"8*F*06/%-*0&4A*N;/*F*#&)/%'%-A*EO%()*2"'%JL*0%*)6&-A*E+%/*2"J*)"*8%*<6'*6##*>%*.,%%*".*&/AL*
P"4%0"83F*-&-A*F*#%/*2"*".*G6=6AL*:*B$,6$".",*QJ*<06=/%,*R*
" chronologically,!the!reader!is!positioned!in!a!particular!way!
" in!many!fantasies,!the!reader!begins!in!a!whimsical!beginning,!then!progresses!into!horror!
o but!for!this,!the!reader!begins!with!horror!and!un"comfortableness!
" happening!in!a!public!ritual!
" relationship!with!Aro!is!established!–!hates!him!
" cultural!context!"!names!and!words!like!“B'7%)"'8;L*and!“I,"L!–!a!different!races/tribe!!!skin!colour!
also!described!
!
E!0%*=,"-;</&"'*".*/0%*4%6'&'2*".*#&/%,6,7*/%M/)3A-"%)*'"/*4%,%#7*%'/6&#*/0%*-&)<"5%,7*".*/0%*;'.",4;#6/%-J*80&<0*
<6'*/0%'*>%*/6$%'*"5%,*>7*/0%*6</&5%*&462&'6/&"'*".*/0%*,%6-%,?*&/*6#)"*%'/6&#)*/0%*="))&>&#&/7*/06/*8%*467*formulate$
outselves*6'-*)"*-&)<"5%,*806/*06-*=,%5&";)#7*)%%4%-*/"*%#;-%*";,*<"')<&";)'%))AL*:*S"#.26'2*F)%,J*E!0%*1%6-&'2*
G,"<%))T*6*G0%'"4%'"#"2&<6#*I==,"6<0L*
" the!reading!of!any!fiction!can!enact!shaping!of!self!
!
E!%)/*6'-*,%6-%,*'"*#"'2%,*<"'.,"'/*%6<0*"/0%,*6)*">U%</*6'-*);>U%</J*>;/*&')/%6-*/0%*E-&5&)&"'L*/6$%)*=#6<%*8&/0&'*
/0%*,%6-%,*0&4)%#.A*F'*/0&'$&'2*/0%*/0";20/)*".*6'"/0%,J*his$own$individuality$temporarily$recedes$into$the$
background,$since$it$is$supplanted$by$these$alien$thoughtsJ*80&<0*'"8*>%<"4%*/0%*/0%4%*"'*80&<0*0&)*
6//%'/&"'*&)*."<;)%-A*I)*8%*,%6-J*/0%,%*"<<;,)*6'*6,/&.&<&6#*-&5&)&"'*".*";,*=%,)"'6#&/7J*>%<6;)%*8%*/6$%*6)*6*/0%4%*
.",*";,)%#5%)*)"4%/0&'2*/06/*8%*6,%*'"/LA*:*F)%,*VWX*
" while!reading,!we!set!aside!our!own!subjectivity,!and!become!someone/something!else!for!a!while!
" assumptions!of!self!challenged!as!we!read!
" we!take!on!point!on!view!of!another!–!alien!thoughts!of!the!narrator!
" in!fantasy,!genre!makes!us!literal!
!
!
!
Reading'and.as'the'Other'
" relationship!between!text!and!the!(Reader’s)!world!
o what!sort!of!response!to!and!representation!of!reality!is!expressed!by!fantasy!
" realationship!between!the!reader!and!(the!world!of)!the!text!
o when!and!how!does!he!reader!meet/encounter!the!fantastic?!
" Point!of!view!–!narrator’s!and/or!character’s!reliability,!authenticity,!knowledge,!awareness!
" Defamiliarization,'estrangement'(between'the'reader’s'world'and'the'world'of'the'text)!
" Encounter(s)!with!the!Other!(as!magic,!the!monstrous,!the!supernatural)!
" Borders,!boundaries,!liminal!places/spaces/states,!thresholds!
" Change,!metamorphosis,!transformation!–!identity/sense!of!self!
" Hesitations,!uncertainties,!ambiguities!
!
Orientalism,'Postcolonialism,'and'Immersive'Fantasy!
" Orientalism!
o Edward!said,!B,&%'/6#&)4T!
" “orientalism”!is!a!form!of!approach!of!the!East!by!the!West,!expressing!and!reinforcing!
the!West’s'imperial/colonial'power!over!the!East!(economic,!political,!cultural,!
linguistic,!intellectual,!etc.);!
" “orientalism”!makes!the!East'the'Other!of!the!West!–!i.e.,!it!imagines,!constructs,!and!
idealizes!the!East!as!different!from!and!contrasted!to!the!West,!by!figuring!the!East!
predominantly!as!mysterious,!dark,!irrational,!morally!depraved,!socially/culturally!
backward,!and!so!forth;!
" “orientalism”!is!a!discourse!that!produces!and!perpetuates!a!specific!way!of!thinking!
about!and!representing!the!East,!of!“othering”!the!East,!that!supports!Western!
colonial/imperial!hegemony!over!the!East!
!"*/0%*6'<%)/",)J*)=&,&/)*6'-*/06/*=#6<%*)"*"./%'*<6##%-*EI.,&<6LA*:*B$",6.",J*I<$'"8#%-2%4%'/)*
" “Africa”!is!in!quotation!marks!!!drawing!attention!to!the!world!!!not!always!what!it!is!
o Chinua!Achebe,!“An!imagine!of!Africa:!Racism!in!Conrad’s!O%6,/*".*Y6,$'%))”!(1977)!
Z3[*/0%*-%)&,%*&'*S%)/%,'*=)7<0"#"27*/"*set$Africa$up$as$a$foil$to$EuropeJ*6)*6*=#6<%*".*
'%26/&"')*6/*"'<%*,%4"/%*6'-*562;%#7*.64&#&6,J*&'*<"4=6,&)"'*8&/0*80&<0*9;,"=%()*"8'*)/6/%*".*
)=&,&/;6#*2,6<%*8&##*>%*46'&.%)/A*\R]^_`*
O%6,/*".*Y6,$'%))*=,"U%</)*/0%*&462&'%*".*Africa$as$“the$other$world”,$the$antithesis$of$
Europe$and$therefore$of$civilizationJ*6*=#6<%*80%,%*46'()*56;'/%-*&'/%##&2%'<%*6'-*,%.&'%4%'/*
6,%*.&'6##7*4"<$%-*>7*/,&;4=06'/*>%)/&6#&/7A*\R]^Q`*
Z3A[*6*a"',6-*)/;-%'/*&'.",4%-*4%*&'*P<"/#6'-*/06/*I.,&<6*&)*4%,%#7*/0%*)%//&'2*.",*/0%*
-&)&'/%2,6/&"'*".*/0%*4&'-*".*H,Ab;,/cA*
*S0&<0*&)*=6,/#7*/0%*="&'/A*I.,&<6*&)*)%//&'2*6'-*>6<$-,"=*80&<0*eliminates$the$African$as$
human$factorA*I.,&<6*6)*6*4%/6=07)&<6#*>6//#%.&%#-*-%5"&-*".*6##*,%<"2'&c6>#%*0;46'&/7J*&'/"*80&/%*
/0%*86'-%,&'2*9;,"=%6'*%'/%,)*6/*/0&)*=%,&#A*a6'*'">"-7*)%%*/0%*=,%=")/%,";)*6'-*=%,5%,)%*
6,,"26'<%*&'*/0;)*reducing$Africa$to$the$role$of$props*.",*/0%*>,%6$C;=*".*/0%*"'%*=%//7*9;,"=%6'*
4&'-d*\R]We`*
" Africa!reserves!to!maintain!Western!ideology!and!assumptions!
" Postcolonialism!
o A!questioning,!critique,!and!subversion!of!Western!colonialist!discourse(s)!and!paradigms!in!
academia,!art/literature,!and!culture,!beginning!in!the!1950s!
o A!study!of!imperialism!and!colonialism/colonization!from!the!perspective!of!the!colonized;!a!!
writing'back”!in!order!to!correct!Western!views!of!an!assumptions!about!colonized!peoples!
o A!focus!on!“minority”!and!“other”!peoples!and!cultures!in!relation!to!the!experience!of!
colonization!and!Western!hegemony:!i.e.!minority!discourse,!Latin!American!studies,!African!
studies,!Caribbean!studies,!Third!World!studies,!Chicano!studies,!subaltern!studies,!etc.!
o Concerned!with!the!various!“texts”!of!and!the!resistance!to!Western!colonialism”!literature,!film,!
philosophy,!art,!politics,!cultural!theory,!anthropology,!etc.!
!
!
" Immersive!Fantasy!
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\H%'-#%)"0'*QW`*
F'*%..%</J*8%*4;)/*sit$in$the$heads$of$the$protagonists,$accepting$what$they$know$as$the$worldJ*
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!0%*.&,)/*=%,)"'*&)*6'*&'/%')%#7*&44%,)&5%*-%5&<%A*F/*-%46'-)*/06/*/0%*readers$subsume$their$
points$of$view*/"*806/*/0%*'6,,6/",*6)*6;/0",&6#*5"&<%*&)*8&##&'2*/"*,%5%6#3A*\H%'-#%)"0'*WX`*
I'*&44%,)&5%*.6'/6)7*&)*oriented$inwardJ*)0&%#-&'2*";,*5&)&"'J*<,%6/&'2*&/)%#.*>7*">)<;,&'2*/0%*
%M/%,'6#3A*S06/*46//%,)*&)*/06/*/0%*6;/0",*<,%6/%)*/0%*)%')%*".*6*=#6<%*;'-%,)/""-A*\H%'-#%)"0'*RRX`!
o Reader!is!part!of!the!world!of!that!story!
!
Orientalism'
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%7%)A*1%4%4>%,A*Y,68*.,"4*&/A*!0%'*>%*&/Af*!0%*.%6/0%,*&'*47*06'-*86)*)4""/0J*-%#&<6/%A*F*$'%8*U;)/*80%,%*&/*8";#-*
2"A*F'*/0%*%4=/7*)06./*"'*47*8&'2A*!0&)*/&4%*F*86)*686,%*6'-*&'*<"'/,"#A*F/*86)'g/*#&$%*4%#/&'2*&'/"*6*=""#*".*
)"4%/0&'2*)06=%#%))*6'-*/0%'*/6$&'2*6'"/0%,*)06=%A*F*86)*6#867)*)"4%/0&'2A*H7*>"'%)*)"./#7*>;<$#%-*6'-*<,6<$%-*
6'-*)0,;'$A*F/*-&-'g/*0;,/A*H7*>"-7g)*/&));%*86)*;'-;#6/&'2*6'-*)0&./&'2A*H7*4&'-*<06'2%-*."<;)A*F*86)*)/&##*4%J*>;/*
.,"4*6*-&..%,%'/*=%,)=%</&5%A*F*0%6,-*)"./*="==&'2*6'-*);<$&'2*)";'-)*6'-*F*)4%##%-*/06/*,&<0*)4%##*/06/*F*"'#7*
'"/&<%-*-;,&'2*4"4%'/)*".*"--'%))AL*:*\Q]J*<06=/%,*]`*
" source!of!magic!is!gaining!perspective!and!unique!view!of!the!world!“under!the!skin”!
" what!we!see!on!the!surface!is!one!thing,!beneath!that!surface!is!something!different!fF/g)*,&20/*/0%,%J*
;'-%,*/0%*);,.6<%Jf!
" what!her!body!goes!through,!her!senses!!!she!herself!is!immersive!in!her!world!
" magic!!
!
Language'and'the'Building'of'a'World'
" onyesonwu!
" mwita,!luyu,!binta,!diti,!fanasi!
" fadil!ogundimu,!mijeri,!najeeba,!aro,!sola!
" daib!
" jwahir,!osugbo!
" ewu!
" eshu!
" yeye,!oga,!ada,!ana!m"bobi!
" nuru,!okeke!
" the!great!book!
" ani,!ogun!
" akiki,!alusi,!mmuo,!uwa!
" bushcraft!
" eleventh!rite!
" iroko,!rapa,!juju!
o language!plays!important!role!in!fantasy!and!making!the!world!
o languages!give!fantasy!world!a!feel!of!authenticity,!depth,!realism!
o also!makes!clear!of!otherness!of!the!fantasy!world!–!not!our!world!
!
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