Homer‟s Illiad 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM
Takes place in 8thcentury BCE
You can see how old because of the layers found in the story
Clearly an older oral text before published
Read at celebratory meals of heroes
Other authors refer to it
People don‟t know for sure if “Homer” existed
Greek individuals living in close proximity to Troy
Troy was in ruins at the time it was written. So already being written as
an old story, looking back
What purpose for early readers? People didn‟t go home and read in
Ancient Middle Ages. They would lecture. Listen rather than read story
Greece won the Trojan War, everyone knew this. Knew the story of the
war and the people in it
Iliad is a cross section of a bigger story, Before Greece even invades
End of Iliad Hektor dies. Funeral for Hektor (Chief of Trojan princesses)
Homer assumes we know this
The readers don‟t know HOW things will unfold and HOW the minor
characters will act in the situations they are put in
Not just a historical recount but also a tragedy (genre)
Something falls, the hero falls, the city falls
Is someone pulling the strings, the Gods? Who/what makes things
3000 year old, older than that orally, many different versions before the
invention of the printing press
Around 250 BCE Egyptian Greek Scholars decide they‟re going to figure
things out. Divide it into 21 books (editors did not Homer)
Events of the Trojan War
Warriors from Greece on one side versus Troy on the other side
Two men, two families [Achaeans versus Trojans] however also a very
Poem at the beginning of Book 1 contains figures you are expected to
know (they are not introduced).
Paris (Prince of Troy) gets with Helen. Homer does not allude to this until
Book 24 (p. 476) Paris is asked to choose which goddess is the most
beautiful, they all offer him something, Aphrodite offers the most Beautiful woman (Helen), which led to disaster. Problem is she is married
to Menelaus (a Greek). Whose fault is it? Paris for stealing Helen or
Menelaous for not expecting the will of the gods?
See Section II for List of Characters
The list of Trojans is different than the list of Greeks. There are more
WOMEN, as well as many warriors. The Trojans are caught in necessity,
fighting because they have to. They need to defend territory.
Greeks are fighting to increase their glory. Pursuit of triumph is their
There is a sense of family on the Trojan side
Kassandra is Pham‟s only daughter, most tragic. She refuses Apollo, so
she is given punishment of prophecy, so she knows disaster before it
Some gods are not prominent or “major” but in the Iliad they are very
important. For ex. Thetis, mother of Achilleus (very personal)
Gods are important because they are right in the middle of things „in the
trenches‟, they are like people, committed. Some are uncommitted like
Zeus. What makes them different is their inability to die. Cannot express
final loyalty (cannot die for something) permanently changeable because
of their immortality.
Hektor – breaker of forces
From Book 12 -> 15: more fighting back and forth
Switch to second person narration (you..) this makes this more personal,
intimate. As Patroklos comes closer to death this narration is used, makes
the narrator and extends even to the reader feel like they are loosing
Things escalate when Patrokolos goes out to battle. Cause of his death:
Apollo, Delhobos(?), Hektor and by Achilles and Nestor because they told
him to go. Zeus „kills‟ Patrokolos in favor of destiny, falls of Troy, pleasing
Hera. There is a more important web of events that must unfold Patrokolos‟ last words remind the end of the story. Readers/listeners knew
the outcome of the war, so Homer just reminds that although it may appear
Hektor will be triumphant, he won‟t.
Achilles hears about Patrokolos‟ death and mourns
Anger is not as powerful as sorrow. Achilles is sorrowful now which means
he is not only willing to fight but also willing to die
Story from a different angle:
Hektor leaves with a purpose, not just to fight, but also to make sacrifices to
the gods and ask for help. He leaves the battlefield to find Paris and
encourage Trojans to fight and appeal to the gods.
He tells the Trojan WOMEN to make sacrifices, not only because they‟re the
only ones in the city, but because they should appeal to goddess Athena so
that she might have pity on the women and children of Troy
Helen is dangerous because she makes men forget what they‟re supposed to
be doing. Helen does not seduce Hektor. He says he is going to his own
home first, to his own wife.
His wife is found looking on the battlefield, shows what she is worried about.
Asks him not to go. ***His response (440-)
Only a quarter in and already a strong sense of finality “there will come a
day when Troy will fall” inevitable
Hektor vs. Agamemnon
Elaborate description of Achilles armor as its prepared, given to him by his
mother. Made for him by the gods, a son of Zeus. **Virgil recalls this scene
where the armor is elaborately described
Armor given to Achilles Patrokolos funeral what does it mean to bury the body? Language of healing
and closure. Achilles wants to be able to mourn.
Gods protecting his body from destruction
Armor gets dirty
Two communities parallel each other: gods and mankind
They intercept often.
Book 1: Zeus and Hera husband and wife pitted together, rivalry just as
there is rivalry between Achilles and Agememnon
Some gods get directly involved in battle.
What ways do gods make appearance in world of man?
They disguise themselves as people you know, or as other phenomena in
- Achilles about to take his sword out to Agememnon. Athena appears to
only him and stops him
- Hektor running away from Achilles, Athena disguises herself as
Diophedes to make him stand and stop running so Achilles could kill him
Ground Rules for relationship between MAN and GODS
- Reciprocity: o one can get Achilles to listen except for the gods, not
because he‟s afraid but because (book 1, 218) if you listen to them,
they‟ll listen to you
- Family ties: gods are linked. Personal relationships.
- Patronage: which side do they support? What city are they from?
Sometimes straightforward, sometimes not. For ex. Zeus is mediating
between all different groups, for ex. Book 22 68, he didn‟t want Hektor to die because he always sacrificed him to Zeus, but he‟s constrained by
Because of man‟s ability to die they can give their final vow, final gift. Gods
cannot do this. It is a limitation. They can go on the battlefield but they
won‟t bleed blood, they won‟t die.
We already know the ending, how can Homer end the story interesting then?
It has to be about closing things up in some sort of way.
He tells us the last several weeks right before the end, does not end with
death of Hektor (Early), does not end with fall of Troy(Late). Book 24 is the
funeral of Hektor
- Sense of waiting, Hektor is standing in front of the gates of the city
- Blocking entry to city with his body, threshold of city, threshold
moment, holding off a moment in time
- Hektor falls
- Priam talks to Achilles about the death of Hektor
- They feast together, though they are enemies
- Gaze upon each other, see the godlike nature in each other
- You don‟t see it on the battlefield only, you see it when they show pity
- Closes with funeral, Priam risks his own life to get the body back. The
funeral has a purpose for not only the individual but also they community.
Trojan women weeping for Hektor, even Helen. They achieve a sort of
communal solidarity, feast, that feeds not only the people who mourn but
the gods. IMPORTANCE OF FEASTING**
- Achilles dreams of Patrokolos who asks him to bury their ashes
Men themselves are foods of the gods
p 142 – mankind is attached to the soil. Gets their energy from the soil.
People themselves are like things in the soil, one-generation dies and
another grows. Slaughter of men on the battlefield is like a harvest BLACKBOARD NOTES
Achaians (also Argives, Danaans) Trojans
Achilleus: son of Peleus; the main Greek Agenor: A Trojan warrior who tries to defeat Achilleus
champion. in Book 21
Agamemnon: son of Atreus, brother of Menelaos, Aineias (also Aeneas): cousin of Hektor, son of
ruler of Mykenai (Mycenae), commander of the Aphrodite; the only major Trojan figure to survive the
Achaian (Greek) armies; feuds with Achilleus over war and (according to the Aeneid) founder of Rome.
the spoils of war. Andromache: Hektor’s wife and mother of their baby
Aias (also Ajax): also called Telamonian Ajax (son of boy, Astynax (literally “ruler of the city”)
Telamon) and Greater Ajax. The tallest and strongest Briseis: princess taken as spoils of war to be the
warrior to fight for the Achaians. concubine of Achilleus, confiscated by Agamemnon
Aias (also Ajax): Ajax the Lesser, son of Oileus, often Chryseis: daughter of Apollo’spriest Chryses, taken as
fights alongside Great Ajax; the two together are a war prize by Agamemnon, later returned to her father
sometimes called the “Aiantes.” Deihobos: Trojan warrior, son of Priam and brother of
Diomedes: youngest of the Achaian rulers, wounds Hektor; impersonated by Athene
two gods, Aphrodite and Ares; wounded by Paris in Hektor (also Hector): eldest son of Priam, leader of the
book 11. Trojan and allied armies, heir apparent to the throne of
Kalchas (also Calchas): a powerful prophet and Troy
omen reader, who guides the Achaians through the Hekabe (also Hecuba): wife of Priam, mother of
war with his predictions. Hektor, Paris, Kassandra, etc.
Menelaos: son of Atreus, younger brother of Helen: wife of Menelaos (King of Sparta), who ran away
Agamemnon, first husband of Helen, ruler of with Paris; cause of the war
Lakedaimon (Sparta). Helenos: son of Priam and Hekabe, soothsayer and
Odysseus: son of Laertes, ruler of Ithaka, close friend warrior
of Agamemnon, famed for his cleverness; main Kassandra (also Cassandra): daughter of Priam,
character of the Odyssey. phophetess, first loved and then cursed by Apollo; as
Patroklos: son of Menoitios, close friend of Achilleus. punishment for offending him, she foresees the fat of
Phoinix: son of Amyntor, old Achaian warrior greatly Troy, including her own death and the deaths of her
trusted by Achilleus and his former tutor. entire family, but is not believed
Paris: son of Priam, brother of Hektor; also called
Alexandros; runs away with Helen, which is the cause
of the war.
Polydoros: youngest son of Priam, killed by Achilleus
Priam: king of the Trojans, too old to fight; father of
Sarpedon: son of Zeus; co-leader of the regional forces
allied with Troy; killed by Patroklos List of The Gods
Aphrodite: goddess of love, beauty, and sexual pleasure; daughter of Zeus (according to
Homer), wife of Hephaistos, lover of Ares; mother of Aineias, protector of Helen.
Apollo: god of music and healing, son of Zeus; chief protector of the Trojans.
Ares: god of war, son of Zeus and Hera; protector of the Trojans.
Athene: goddess of wisdom, daughter of Zeus; chief protector of the Achaians, especially
Achilleus and Odysseus
Hephaistos: god of the forge, son of Zeus and Hera; forges Achilleus’ new armor at Thetis’
request in book 18
Hera: queen of the gods, sister and wife of Zeus; protector of the Achaians
Hermes: messenger of the gods, son of Zeus; leads Priam to Achilleus in book 24.
Iris: messenger of Hera
Poseidon: god of the seas, brother of Zeus; protector of the Achaians
Thetis: a water nymph or Nereid, mother of Achilleus
Zeus: most powerful of the gods
List of the gods on each side
Poseidon Aphrodite (for Helen)
Thetis (for Achilleus) Plato‟s Symposium 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM
Most fascinating parts: Speeches 4,6,7
Illiad was a poem about love and war, whereas the Symposium is
exclusively about love. What‟s its affect? How should you express love?
Expressions of love had already been seen in the Illiad, for example,
Achilles and Patrokolos, Hektor and Andromache (longing for the body)
Not a novel, not poetry, not a short story. It is prose, philosophical
dialogue. What is the genre?
Socrates -> Plato -> Aristotle.
Plato always gives his insights through the words of others. He gives you
the information, he expects the reader to put pieces together on your
Sequence of 7 narratives
Before Socrates dies. Told several years after the actual events of the
Some mediation between the stories. Potentially faulty story
“The best speech in praise of love”
p 8, 9. Decisions made on conduct of the party. Decided not to drink too
much, because they are hung-over from the night before. Decided to
spend their time together in conversation; private speeches, colloquial
There is not an accession in the quality of speeches. Each speech is just
a different perspective on Love.
You might think they are very liberal because sexuality seems fluid.
However, it is a very conservative society. Women are removed from the
society publically, marriages are business arrangements
Phaedrus: love is about sacrifice. Because man has death, you can die for
someone. (p.11- “Only lovers are prepared to sacrifice themselves…”) (p.12
– Orpheus when down to underworld to get his beloved and Achilles love,
gods were impressed. “Chose to die as well as him”) (erastes-lover,
eromenos-the one who is loved). Trying to make sense of this relationship in
terms of his own day. Getting Achilles as example of highest form of love,
who is the eromenos. This is a switching of the dynamic Pausanias: Common love vs. Celestial love. Wrong relationship is with an
immoral man, good relationship with a moral man. (p.19 “Love is good if it
makes people better” “virtue”) love becomes high when in facilitates virtue.
Norm assumed is Male-Male. Lover and beloved in modern times is seen as
mutuality, however not in these times, eros is given from one lover to
another. Beloved (eromenos) is youthful. Common love – women+man.
Celestial love – man+man. Goal of common love is reproductive. Celestial
love involves higher ideals, virtuous quality, lover loves not just the beautiful
body, but they potential for virtue in the younger beloved.
Eryximachus: (p.20 “the distinction is quite right, but love is not only a
human/mental response to human attraction….love is present in everything
that exists”) Love should be moderate, should be a source of harmony.
Introduces idea of fertility, just the way moderate weather is good for crops,
moderate love is good as well.
Aristophanes: He was supposed to go earlier but he couldn‟t go because he
had the hiccups. Hard to know where he begins, p. 25, or much earlier,
because the same sort of thing happens with Socrates. (p.25 gives a
creation myth, and what it means to tell the story of creation, helps to
understand human nature) Three different genders: male, female and
androgynous (insulting term “girly man”). Man was round, whole. (p.26 Zeus
split people into two halves, better for gods, “there very essence has been
split in two always searching for their other halves” always searching for our
other half) Trying to get back to our original nature, this is the POWER of
love, different from previous speeches, from androgynous: nature men
searching for women. Women split in two, this is the only reference in Greek
literature of female homosexuality. Funny, but also somewhat serious,
“reason for all this is search for whole beings, love is just a name given to
Agathon: He‟s a poet. He argues we should praise the God of love himself.
Speech is not nearly as powerful as Aristophanes. Pretty in a superficial way.
p.34 aspects of love: complexion, goodness, self-discipline (fairness)
First three speeches talk about the condition of lovers – how you experience
love in the real world Speeches 4 and 5 talk about the power love
Socrates: presents it as he is remembering an encounter he had in the
past. Dialogue within a dialogue. **People argue whether Diotima is made-
up or real, this is important.** He starts with question/answer period “I got
to do it in my own way…a few questions” - (p.38) typical Socrates. Love
always has an object, must be love of something, can‟t have love on its own.
Has to be something you don‟t have, so that there is longing/desire. Love
itself must need and lack beauty (refutes everything Agathon just said).
Truth you can‟t refute - 201c(p.41). The thing you can‟t resist is the power
of truth (like Aristophanes saying power of love you cant resist). Gods are
there in a hidden way. Socrates exchange with Agathon – he is interrogating
him. It is the same exchange between Socrates and Diotima except roles are
reversed. Diotima is the teacher (the relationship is teacher-student, similar
to erastes-eromenos, eros-philos). Socrates and Diotima talk about the
nature of love, the middle ground, the mediation (p.43) “Translate carry
messages between gods and mortals”. Spirit of love brings divinity and
humanity together. When she talks bout love she describes child of plenty
and poverty, “love never has any money, tough dry skin…” (p.44). Object of
love is goodness itself. Says that you‟re not looking for wholeness, but
goodness (doesn‟t say that Aristophanes speech is bad, just not grounded
properly). Refutes that the object of love is beauty. “Love‟s purpose is
physical and mental pro-creation in a physical medium.” (p.48) reflect the
yearning for immortality. Why is it that love‟s purpose is procreation?
Because it gives mortals immortality (children of the mind) “divine business”
Closest that mortals can get to being gods. Brings up the story of Achilles
(p.51) case of extreme love, HOWEVER they are dying for fame not for love.
They‟re in love, with immortality (fame). “proper way to go about this
business” – (p.53). Give birth to beautiful reasoning. Come to regard
physical beauty as unimportant. Love people for there inside, not what their
surface is like. “you should use the things of this world as rungs in a
ladder…” – (p.55 – 211c) “I believe her” – (p.56 – 212b)
Alcibiades: comes in drunk. His appearance displayed on p.57 top. Comes
in bearing something of god celebrated in drama festival day before. “God,
what‟s this? Socrates?” Not about love but about Socrates. Good looking guy but less good-looking Socrates is not interested. Confuses Socrates.
“Takes people in pretending to be their lover, but then switches the roles”
Compares Socrates to Silenus, a satyr. Socrates has changed Alcibiades
from lover to beloved. “My heart…has been struck and bitten by
philosophy…madness and ecstasy of philosophy”(p. 64).
1. Order and Disorder
2. The Role of the Divine (what is it? Is love always divine?)
Symposium: sequence of speeches
1 - Phaedrus (178a ff.): mythic examples of lovers (Alcestis, Orpheus, Achilles).
2 - Pausanias (180c ff.): lawyer; expression of love in society, role of lover vs. role of beloved.
3 - Eryximachus (186a ff.): physician; love governs all, including medicine and health.
4 - Aristophanes (189c ff.): comic playwright; creation myth.
5 - Agathon (194e ff): tragic poet, host of the symposium; speaks poetically of the god of love.
6 - Socrates (201d ff.): philosopher; repeats what he was told by Diotima of Mantinea.
7 - Alcibiades (214e ff): enters late; drunk; lover of Socrates. Genesis 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM
Tree is not only seen in Genesis. It has symbolic origins because it is
organic, comes out of the ground as one but branches off into many, that
is its paradox unity and many
Literary terms (us)
The story of the bible is a story in translation. For all of these translators,
they want to bring the bible to a wider audience.
Starting at the beginning unlike Symposium. Very compartmentalized.
Ch1 creation of cosmos
As division. In space, water from land. Space and earth. Verse 14:
“God said let there be light…” Verse 16: “two lights greater light to
rule the day and lesser light to rule the night.” **Verse 27: 1st
account of creation, created in God‟s likeness
Ch2 creation of man
Garden, creation of man. About the double creation of man. Verse
21: 2 ndaccount of creation “God caused a deep sleep to fall on
Adam…took one of his ribs…she shall be called woman…”
Ch3 Sin and Expulsion
Verse 24: “Drove out the man…to keep the way of the tree of life”
what‟s happening in terms of space? Man becomes of being in Eden
but he is not a part of the soil of Eden.
About generations of the Bible. Sacrifice.
“Be fruitful and populate the earth”
“A token of a covenant between me and the earth.”
Contract Agreement is not just between God and Noah; it‟s between God,
Noah and the Sea. This idea and the covenant happen first with Noah but
happen again in the Bible.
Different idea of how man and God intercept then in the Iliad, in the Bible it
is by CONTRACT. Because of this monotheistic version of divinity, there are
some differences in the reciprocity between man and the divine.
Ch17 But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this
set time in the next year.
Another mention of covenant with Isaac
Abraham is like Noah in that he participates in a covenant with God.
Does sacrifice not take place because you‟ve shown that you‟re
ready to do it?
Who is sacrificed?
Pattern in Genesis is favor given to younger son(s), who take on the
How can God be all powerful and you still have will?
Ch28 Jacob‟s ladder
Lovely moment “house of God, gate of heaven” moment of covenant again,
God shows himself, something different: Holy Space, but not a place that
you make holy by making a sacrifice, but a place that God makes Holy.
Similar to Diotima‟s ladder of love. Virgil‟s Aeneid 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM
Written by Romans for Romans, Latin epic poem
Named after the man not the city.
Story from the Trojan side
p.412 around l.12 in Illiad - destiny for Aeneas to be lord over the Trojans,
the “chosen one”
Book22: the horrible scene seen with Aeneas talked about in the Illiad has
already happened once we reach the Aeneid, it is foreseen by Priam.
Structure of The Aeneid (first half)
1. Arrival in Carthage; Temple of Juno
2. Back Story I: Retelling the Iliad - includes what Priam anticipated
3. Back Story II: The Trojan Odyssey?
5. The Shadow Troy
6. The Underworld – influences Dante‟s Inferno
l.18 (p.28) Telling the story of the Trojan horse. Present verb tense – when
Aeneas tells it its as if its in the present. Happens again l.41 (p.39).
First 20 lines of the Aeneid “I sing of arms and of a man..” Who is Juno?
Roman version of the Greek god Hera
3 point of views: man, god(muse)
First lines tell us the subject of the poem: Aeneas the son of Venus. A
„fugitive‟(1.2) – to be running away from something (the fallen city). HE
has escaped from city that‟s doomed. A state of exile.
2 sets of fugitives: Trojans running away from troy, and Carthusians running
away from Carthage (a city facing Rome, literally and figuratively, Punic
wars) to build a new empire.
Aeneas is bringing the people that will build the city of Rome.
Punic wars took place after narrative of the Aeneid, but before it was written
l.48-50 “…It was so hard to found the race or Rome”
Setting is the Temple of Juno Before Venus and Aeneas encounter each other, Jupiter encounters him.
(l.356) Formal speech. Jupiter hasn‟t changed sicne the Iliadn in his viw
of the Trojans
He forecasts the future and says that Aeneas will go to war in Italy and be
King of Rome and his son will also find a great city. The prophecy
promises a Trojan Caesar
“I set no limits to their fortunes and no time;” (l.389-90) – however every
empire rises and eventually falls.
Venus‟ appearance – she does not initially look like a goddess, dress was like
a “maiden” – like a local girl not a goddess. Her son does not recognize
her. Before she reveals herself she tells the back story of Carthage. “But
then who are you?...” (l.523) wants him to tell her himself. He starts
complaining about how he‟s been cast away from Troy. She reveals
herself after l.571-72 (“..follow where this pathway leads”), when she
gives him advice to keep going.
(l.647) sees pictures on the wall of story Troy. Begins to weep. Sees how
things flourish and then they end. When you see something that is
nothing but a picture but as if it was real. This is art on the wall…look at
the art later on. This is DIFFERENT from HOMER.
^^ Ekphrasis: words describing art and historical past (in this sense, but
really it could be any art form being used to describe a work of another
(l.683) great episodes of Trojan war, Achilles bringing Hektor around the
walls of Troy. Looking in awe, he is astonished.
(l.825-) Aeneas reveals himself when he first meets Dido for the first time in
the Temple of Juno, looks like a god. (“shoulders like a god” –beauty of
soldiers). “grace as art can add” (l.832). Dido is overcome by wonder
when she sees Aeneas, just as Aeneas was in wonder when he saw the
Dido takes them back to palace for a feast. Bond between Aeneas and Dido
is being formed, Venus is trying to set this up. She deploys all of her
“guile” (l.919) Dido is going to be burned by flames of love. She becomes
intoxicated and dizzy by the effect of this love (l.993). Her fate is sealed,
just seen more in Book 4.
“All things from the first beginning” (l.1050) Book 2
Altars and Thresholds as not just parts of narrative, but as powerful
symbols. The altar is lined up with the threshold as a counterpart.
Aeneas recalls the omen and frightening sign seen when Glaucon and his
sons were preparing to make a sacrifice to the gods
Repeating emphasis on threshold: doorway, stone or wood, which marks the
doorway. You‟re either in or out of the threshold. The movement past it
marks a change in you as your atmosphere changes.
Trojan horse shoved across the doorway - “The horse
(2.661) – Aeneas retelling what he witnessed. Everything in front of
(2.693) Hecuba at the altar.
Priam is on the shore – figuratively between what has ended and what is
beginning. THRESHOLD AND SACRED MOMENT because it is before the
altar. Priam being sacrificed.
Aeneas as pious
The vision of Hektor (2.400)
Panthus giving him the household gods
Emphasis on fathers and sons in the Illiad, in the Aeneid relationship
between father and son shown in a different way
Book 2 he is lifting up his father, the difference from Greek culture, in the
Roman patriarchal relationship
Trojan Odyssey Trojans out of the city led by Aeneas.
“search of fields of exile” (3.6)
Exile: Trojans AND Carthusians are exiles; promised destiny at the end,
similar to leading the Jews out of Egypt.
Book of movement, pattern: City Island City Island City Island
First effort made to set up new city “city we tried to found..”(3.25)
Tried to find another city “eagerly I raise the city walls” (3.177)
Stumbles upon a new Troy (3.379)
“I see a little Troy..” (3.454) Creepy it mimes the old city. Backward looking Troy.
The refugees gain from this creepy Troy. Advice (3.576)
Ended Aeneas two part narration.
Departure from Carthage.
Dido and Aeneas plan going well. “The queen caught between love‟s gain
and press..eaten by a secret flame” (4.1-) “…signs of the old
She becomes more lovesick, in a “frenzy” “crazy in love”
They take refuge in a cave. (4.219-) Fate is sealed “first day of death and
ruin” (4.224) beginning of the end.
Rumor (4.229) Because Aeneas has taken Dido down from a position of
power. Her disgrace is not private. Everyone knows.
Jupiter sends Mercury to tell the message that Aeneas must leave (4.317)
When Mercury delivers this message he explains why: for his son. (4.364)
Dido gets eaten more in flame.
Dido attacking Aeneas. Saying she‟s looking forward to her residence in the
Aeneas getting people ready to go
Takes place in Sicily
Series of games; serious games, similar to funeral of Patrokolos. Paying
homage to the dead. Games are competitions, they let you see who‟s
strong and weak. Aeneas gives prizes, giving a relationship between him
and his men. 1.
1. Stratify men in terms of physical abilities and leadership abilities
2. Gives Aeneas power over his unified hierarchy
3. Aeneas as giver of gifts as “Father Aeneas”
In the second competition which is a foot race, p.112 5.378)
Nisus slips from blood of sacrifice, hes out of the race, as he‟s
falling (5.438), he throws himself in front of who was in first,
Salius, so that his friend can pass him.
This upsets people, so Aeneas has to keep the peace. “Your awards
will not be touched…” (5.458) He gives a consolation prize to Salius. This upsets Nisus because he wanted the best prize. Aeneas gives
him more gifts (5.470ish). He is making everyone happy. “The best
Fortune shifts (5.795) everything falls apart in the commemoration. Dido
messes everything up, and Juno. Juno sends down Iris the minor god in the
form of an old women. Aeneas appeals to father Jupiter. The beautiful rituals
and masculine order, is blown apart by feminine disorder. Chaos has
Closes with death of Palinurus the ship captain.
Getting Aeneas ready to rule Rome.
Starts with a unnamed sibyl of Cumae, foreseeing the future.
Reminds of what we‟ve seen in book 1, the temple of Juno. This is another
temple, also like a cave. Similar to the cave where Dido and Aeneas
consummated their love. Just as scenes of Trojan war on walls, here there
are paintings of past
The cave in book 6 is similar to the cave in book 4, is dark and ominous,
however, it is not and “end” point like the Dido cave was. This cave is a
pathway that will take him where he needs to go, the underworld, where he
will find his father. The sibyl is not a distraction as Dido was. She is a guide.
“One thing I ask…”(6.146-) Asks Sibyl if she can take him to meet his father.
“Kind prophetess I plead, take pity on both a father and a son”
Lots of threshold language. In Priam‟s chamber it was about end of troy
beginning of Rome. This same sort of pathway is seen in this chapter.
Limen (Latin) – threshold
People are moving into a liminal state. Are they still Trojans when troy is
gone? Are the Romans? No, not yet. Eerie echoing of Troy, because they
are in an inbetween state.
To enter into underworld Sibyl gives Aeneas three requests(6.190)
The third voice returns that is seen on the first page of the Aeneid, as they
enter into underworld. Rugged geography of the underworld. Some
people suffering, some people content. 6.594 – he sees Dido, who does not want to speak to him. He tries to
speak to her (6.612). She turns away. He‟s going to turn away but
he‟ll feel bad about it..
Father son reunion (p.153 6.898) Powerful moment for both parties. Try to
embrace each other. Embrace between living and dead seen between
Patrokolos and Achilles. (“Three times they try to embrace, three times it
doesn‟t work”) More than a private two person bond, Not just a small family
group, it encases all of Rome
Virgil writing about history, but for Aeneas it‟s the future
Book 7 -
Less orderly, you can see the end goal of the Aeneid. Opens up with they
have made it at last to Italy.
Lavinia is destined to be Aeneas‟ bride, but shes engaged to Turnus.
Lavinia‟s father Latinus rules the land Aeneas is destined to settle.
Juno is going to interfere to slow things down, “hold off a moment” (7.408).
Compared to Iliad, where gods were heavily involved in the conflict; in the
Aeneid it is different. The gods do get involved a little bit, however, they‟re
“girly” (Venus) or minor (Juturna) and fighting because the players of war
are their relatives.
Aeneas and Turnus are going to battle “orderly assembly” over Lavinia.
Then everything falls apart, after first lines 100. The flames by Juno is
delaying things, creating disorder. Series of duels and conquests.
Conflicts at their strongest, in the conflict between Aeneas and Lavinia.
Juturna kills herself. Its not just that Aeneas a wants to win, its that he
knows what he has to do. Either destroy them or subdue them. Sense of
Duality, two different fates, passage at end of book 12. P325 12.1041 –
Olympus king calls out to Juno, Jupiter asks what her plan is since Aeneas is
destined. She says she will yield..with conditions (10.1292) Says they
cannot be Trojans anymore, they must let the Rome people keep their
Roman-ness. Their empire cannot be named Troy. The nature of Rome
mustn‟t be a new Troy; A combination of many diferent people, the Latins
who were there first (ruled under Latinus). IS it different to be Roman then Trojan? They must assimilate to the Roman culture. What it means to be
Roman is to absorb, anything that cannot be absorbed is eradicated.
Jupiter responds to Juno by saying he will grant her wish, saying
he‟ll combine everything.
Turnus is asking for mercy from Aeneas.
1262 – Aeneas changes because he remembers the ruthlessness of Turnus
was, and so he takes no pity, and kills Turnus. Major Figures in the Aeneid 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM
Aeneas heroic Trojan exile
Anchises father of Aeneas
Ascanius / Iulus son of Aeneas
Creusa wife of Aeneas
Dido queen of Carthage
Anna sister of Dido
Iarbas African king, suitor of Dido
Figures from Troy:
Turnus king of the Rutulians, suitor of Lavinia
Juturna nymph, sister of Turnus
Latinus ruler of Latium
Amata wife of Latinus
Lavinia daughter of Latinus
Equivalent Names for the Gods:
Zeus Jupiter / Jove
Hermes Mercury Ovid‟s Metamorphoses 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM
Writing around the same time as Virgil. He is a little bit younger than Virgil.
During the rule from the heir of Caesar (Augustus). Virgil, a big name,
dies when Ovid is 29. Ovid wants to put himself in the same place as
Virgil, to impress Augustus. There are some similarities between his work
and The Aeneid. The last 5 books for example talk about Troy and Rome.
Metamorphosis = CHANGE – What is it?
What is the nature of transformation? Changing the form of something that
Changes happen fast. A flash. Moment of myth.
The book is also about a universal history, collection of all stories ever told.
A continuous history, full of mutability and flux. It has a beginning middle
end. Does not contain ruptures the way the Aeneid and the Iliad change.
The continuous flow of change is softer. There is stability and continuity
Opening lines: “One continuous poem” however mutable. “Thread” that runs
Genre – way of labeling literature. What kind of genre is Metamorphosis?
Could be epic in some ways, but not exactly.
Gods can take on different forms when they choose too. Can disguise
themselves as forms or other people. Important. Seen in Arachne‟s story
Could be seen as a loose division of 3 parts:
1. Creation to Calliope‟s song
2. Arachne to Orpheus‟s song
3. Troy & Rome
All kinds of beings represented in metamorphosis (animal, vegtable,
mineral). Gods can also be changed. However gods have the choice to
change, man does not have a choice.
Different people tell the stories. Embedded narratives. CREATION TO CAL