Class Notes (809,487)
Canada (493,752)
English (1,386)
ENG150Y1 (97)

Lecture Notes.docx

50 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Suzanne Akbari

Homer‟s Illiad 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM Takes place in 8thcentury BCE  You can see how old because of the layers found in the story  Clearly an older oral text before published  Read at celebratory meals of heroes  Other authors refer to it  People don‟t know for sure if “Homer” existed  Greek individuals living in close proximity to Troy  Troy was in ruins at the time it was written. So already being written as an old story, looking back  What purpose for early readers? People didn‟t go home and read in Ancient Middle Ages. They would lecture. Listen rather than read story  Greece won the Trojan War, everyone knew this. Knew the story of the war and the people in it  Iliad is a cross section of a bigger story, Before Greece even invades  End of Iliad Hektor dies. Funeral for Hektor (Chief of Trojan princesses) Homer assumes we know this  The readers don‟t know HOW things will unfold and HOW the minor characters will act in the situations they are put in  Not just a historical recount but also a tragedy (genre)  Something falls, the hero falls, the city falls  Is someone pulling the strings, the Gods? Who/what makes things happen?  3000 year old, older than that orally, many different versions before the invention of the printing press  Around 250 BCE Egyptian Greek Scholars decide they‟re going to figure things out. Divide it into 21 books (editors did not Homer) Events of the Trojan War  Warriors from Greece on one side versus Troy on the other side  Two men, two families [Achaeans versus Trojans] however also a very broad war  Poem at the beginning of Book 1 contains figures you are expected to know (they are not introduced).  Paris (Prince of Troy) gets with Helen. Homer does not allude to this until Book 24 (p. 476) Paris is asked to choose which goddess is the most beautiful, they all offer him something, Aphrodite offers the most Beautiful woman (Helen), which led to disaster. Problem is she is married to Menelaus (a Greek). Whose fault is it? Paris for stealing Helen or Menelaous for not expecting the will of the gods? See Section II for List of Characters  The list of Trojans is different than the list of Greeks. There are more WOMEN, as well as many warriors. The Trojans are caught in necessity, fighting because they have to. They need to defend territory.  Greeks are fighting to increase their glory. Pursuit of triumph is their motivation.  There is a sense of family on the Trojan side  Kassandra is Pham‟s only daughter, most tragic. She refuses Apollo, so she is given punishment of prophecy, so she knows disaster before it happens.  Some gods are not prominent or “major” but in the Iliad they are very important. For ex. Thetis, mother of Achilleus (very personal)  Gods are important because they are right in the middle of things „in the trenches‟, they are like people, committed. Some are uncommitted like Zeus. What makes them different is their inability to die. Cannot express final loyalty (cannot die for something) permanently changeable because of their immortality.  Hektor – breaker of forces From Book 12 -> 15: more fighting back and forth Book 16 Switch to second person narration (you..) this makes this more personal, intimate. As Patroklos comes closer to death this narration is used, makes the narrator and extends even to the reader feel like they are loosing Patrokolos. Things escalate when Patrokolos goes out to battle. Cause of his death: Apollo, Delhobos(?), Hektor and by Achilles and Nestor because they told him to go. Zeus „kills‟ Patrokolos in favor of destiny, falls of Troy, pleasing Hera. There is a more important web of events that must unfold Patrokolos‟ last words remind the end of the story. Readers/listeners knew the outcome of the war, so Homer just reminds that although it may appear Hektor will be triumphant, he won‟t. Book 18 Achilles hears about Patrokolos‟ death and mourns Anger is not as powerful as sorrow. Achilles is sorrowful now which means he is not only willing to fight but also willing to die Story from a different angle: Book 6 Hektor leaves with a purpose, not just to fight, but also to make sacrifices to the gods and ask for help. He leaves the battlefield to find Paris and encourage Trojans to fight and appeal to the gods. He tells the Trojan WOMEN to make sacrifices, not only because they‟re the only ones in the city, but because they should appeal to goddess Athena so that she might have pity on the women and children of Troy Helen is dangerous because she makes men forget what they‟re supposed to be doing. Helen does not seduce Hektor. He says he is going to his own home first, to his own wife. His wife is found looking on the battlefield, shows what she is worried about. Asks him not to go. ***His response (440-) Only a quarter in and already a strong sense of finality “there will come a day when Troy will fall” inevitable Book 12 Hektor vs. Agamemnon Book 18 Elaborate description of Achilles armor as its prepared, given to him by his mother. Made for him by the gods, a son of Zeus. **Virgil recalls this scene where the armor is elaborately described Book 19 Armor given to Achilles Patrokolos funeral what does it mean to bury the body? Language of healing and closure. Achilles wants to be able to mourn. About community Gods protecting his body from destruction Book 20 Armor gets dirty Book 22 Hektor dies Book 24 Hektor‟s funeral The Gods Two communities parallel each other: gods and mankind They intercept often. Book 1: Zeus and Hera husband and wife pitted together, rivalry just as there is rivalry between Achilles and Agememnon Some gods get directly involved in battle. What ways do gods make appearance in world of man? They disguise themselves as people you know, or as other phenomena in nature. - Achilles about to take his sword out to Agememnon. Athena appears to only him and stops him - Hektor running away from Achilles, Athena disguises herself as Diophedes to make him stand and stop running so Achilles could kill him Ground Rules for relationship between MAN and GODS - Reciprocity: o one can get Achilles to listen except for the gods, not because he‟s afraid but because (book 1, 218) if you listen to them, they‟ll listen to you - Family ties: gods are linked. Personal relationships. - Patronage: which side do they support? What city are they from? Sometimes straightforward, sometimes not. For ex. Zeus is mediating between all different groups, for ex. Book 22 68, he didn‟t want Hektor to die because he always sacrificed him to Zeus, but he‟s constrained by other considerations Because of man‟s ability to die they can give their final vow, final gift. Gods cannot do this. It is a limitation. They can go on the battlefield but they won‟t bleed blood, they won‟t die. Ending We already know the ending, how can Homer end the story interesting then? It has to be about closing things up in some sort of way. He tells us the last several weeks right before the end, does not end with death of Hektor (Early), does not end with fall of Troy(Late). Book 24 is the funeral of Hektor Book 22 - Sense of waiting, Hektor is standing in front of the gates of the city - Blocking entry to city with his body, threshold of city, threshold moment, holding off a moment in time - Hektor falls Book 24 - Priam talks to Achilles about the death of Hektor - They feast together, though they are enemies - Gaze upon each other, see the godlike nature in each other - You don‟t see it on the battlefield only, you see it when they show pity - Closes with funeral, Priam risks his own life to get the body back. The funeral has a purpose for not only the individual but also they community. Trojan women weeping for Hektor, even Helen. They achieve a sort of communal solidarity, feast, that feeds not only the people who mourn but the gods. IMPORTANCE OF FEASTING** - Achilles dreams of Patrokolos who asks him to bury their ashes together Feasting Men themselves are foods of the gods p 142 – mankind is attached to the soil. Gets their energy from the soil. People themselves are like things in the soil, one-generation dies and another grows. Slaughter of men on the battlefield is like a harvest BLACKBOARD NOTES Achaians (also Argives, Danaans) Trojans Achilleus: son of Peleus; the main Greek Agenor: A Trojan warrior who tries to defeat Achilleus champion. in Book 21 Agamemnon: son of Atreus, brother of Menelaos, Aineias (also Aeneas): cousin of Hektor, son of ruler of Mykenai (Mycenae), commander of the Aphrodite; the only major Trojan figure to survive the Achaian (Greek) armies; feuds with Achilleus over war and (according to the Aeneid) founder of Rome. the spoils of war. Andromache: Hektor’s wife and mother of their baby Aias (also Ajax): also called Telamonian Ajax (son of boy, Astynax (literally “ruler of the city”) Telamon) and Greater Ajax. The tallest and strongest Briseis: princess taken as spoils of war to be the warrior to fight for the Achaians. concubine of Achilleus, confiscated by Agamemnon Aias (also Ajax): Ajax the Lesser, son of Oileus, often Chryseis: daughter of Apollo’spriest Chryses, taken as fights alongside Great Ajax; the two together are a war prize by Agamemnon, later returned to her father sometimes called the “Aiantes.” Deihobos: Trojan warrior, son of Priam and brother of Diomedes: youngest of the Achaian rulers, wounds Hektor; impersonated by Athene two gods, Aphrodite and Ares; wounded by Paris in Hektor (also Hector): eldest son of Priam, leader of the book 11. Trojan and allied armies, heir apparent to the throne of Kalchas (also Calchas): a powerful prophet and Troy omen reader, who guides the Achaians through the Hekabe (also Hecuba): wife of Priam, mother of war with his predictions. Hektor, Paris, Kassandra, etc. Menelaos: son of Atreus, younger brother of Helen: wife of Menelaos (King of Sparta), who ran away Agamemnon, first husband of Helen, ruler of with Paris; cause of the war Lakedaimon (Sparta). Helenos: son of Priam and Hekabe, soothsayer and Odysseus: son of Laertes, ruler of Ithaka, close friend warrior of Agamemnon, famed for his cleverness; main Kassandra (also Cassandra): daughter of Priam, character of the Odyssey. phophetess, first loved and then cursed by Apollo; as Patroklos: son of Menoitios, close friend of Achilleus. punishment for offending him, she foresees the fat of Phoinix: son of Amyntor, old Achaian warrior greatly Troy, including her own death and the deaths of her trusted by Achilleus and his former tutor. entire family, but is not believed Paris: son of Priam, brother of Hektor; also called Alexandros; runs away with Helen, which is the cause of the war. Polydoros: youngest son of Priam, killed by Achilleus Priam: king of the Trojans, too old to fight; father of fifty sons Sarpedon: son of Zeus; co-leader of the regional forces allied with Troy; killed by Patroklos List of The Gods Aphrodite: goddess of love, beauty, and sexual pleasure; daughter of Zeus (according to Homer), wife of Hephaistos, lover of Ares; mother of Aineias, protector of Helen. Apollo: god of music and healing, son of Zeus; chief protector of the Trojans. Ares: god of war, son of Zeus and Hera; protector of the Trojans. Athene: goddess of wisdom, daughter of Zeus; chief protector of the Achaians, especially Achilleus and Odysseus Hephaistos: god of the forge, son of Zeus and Hera; forges Achilleus’ new armor at Thetis’ request in book 18 Hera: queen of the gods, sister and wife of Zeus; protector of the Achaians Hermes: messenger of the gods, son of Zeus; leads Priam to Achilleus in book 24. Iris: messenger of Hera Poseidon: god of the seas, brother of Zeus; protector of the Achaians Thetis: a water nymph or Nereid, mother of Achilleus Zeus: most powerful of the gods List of the gods on each side Achaians Trojans Athene Apollo Hera Ares Poseidon Aphrodite (for Helen) Thetis (for Achilleus) Plato‟s Symposium 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM  Really short  Most fascinating parts: Speeches 4,6,7  Illiad was a poem about love and war, whereas the Symposium is exclusively about love. What‟s its affect? How should you express love?  Expressions of love had already been seen in the Illiad, for example, Achilles and Patrokolos, Hektor and Andromache (longing for the body)  Not a novel, not poetry, not a short story. It is prose, philosophical dialogue. What is the genre?  Socrates -> Plato -> Aristotle.  Plato always gives his insights through the words of others. He gives you the information, he expects the reader to put pieces together on your own.  Sequence of 7 narratives  Before Socrates dies. Told several years after the actual events of the Symposium.  Some mediation between the stories. Potentially faulty story  “The best speech in praise of love”  p 8, 9. Decisions made on conduct of the party. Decided not to drink too much, because they are hung-over from the night before. Decided to spend their time together in conversation; private speeches, colloquial etc.  There is not an accession in the quality of speeches. Each speech is just a different perspective on Love.  You might think they are very liberal because sexuality seems fluid. However, it is a very conservative society. Women are removed from the society publically, marriages are business arrangements Phaedrus: love is about sacrifice. Because man has death, you can die for someone. (p.11- “Only lovers are prepared to sacrifice themselves…”) (p.12 – Orpheus when down to underworld to get his beloved and Achilles love, gods were impressed. “Chose to die as well as him”) (erastes-lover, eromenos-the one who is loved). Trying to make sense of this relationship in terms of his own day. Getting Achilles as example of highest form of love, who is the eromenos. This is a switching of the dynamic Pausanias: Common love vs. Celestial love. Wrong relationship is with an immoral man, good relationship with a moral man. (p.19 “Love is good if it makes people better” “virtue”) love becomes high when in facilitates virtue. Norm assumed is Male-Male. Lover and beloved in modern times is seen as mutuality, however not in these times, eros is given from one lover to another. Beloved (eromenos) is youthful. Common love – women+man. Celestial love – man+man. Goal of common love is reproductive. Celestial love involves higher ideals, virtuous quality, lover loves not just the beautiful body, but they potential for virtue in the younger beloved. Eryximachus: (p.20 “the distinction is quite right, but love is not only a human/mental response to human attraction….love is present in everything that exists”) Love should be moderate, should be a source of harmony. Introduces idea of fertility, just the way moderate weather is good for crops, moderate love is good as well. Aristophanes: He was supposed to go earlier but he couldn‟t go because he had the hiccups. Hard to know where he begins, p. 25, or much earlier, because the same sort of thing happens with Socrates. (p.25 gives a creation myth, and what it means to tell the story of creation, helps to understand human nature) Three different genders: male, female and androgynous (insulting term “girly man”). Man was round, whole. (p.26 Zeus split people into two halves, better for gods, “there very essence has been split in two always searching for their other halves” always searching for our other half) Trying to get back to our original nature, this is the POWER of love, different from previous speeches, from androgynous: nature men searching for women. Women split in two, this is the only reference in Greek literature of female homosexuality. Funny, but also somewhat serious, “reason for all this is search for whole beings, love is just a name given to it”. Agathon: He‟s a poet. He argues we should praise the God of love himself. Speech is not nearly as powerful as Aristophanes. Pretty in a superficial way. p.34 aspects of love: complexion, goodness, self-discipline (fairness) First three speeches talk about the condition of lovers – how you experience love in the real world Speeches 4 and 5 talk about the power love Socrates: presents it as he is remembering an encounter he had in the past. Dialogue within a dialogue. **People argue whether Diotima is made- up or real, this is important.** He starts with question/answer period “I got to do it in my own way…a few questions” - (p.38) typical Socrates. Love always has an object, must be love of something, can‟t have love on its own. Has to be something you don‟t have, so that there is longing/desire. Love itself must need and lack beauty (refutes everything Agathon just said). Truth you can‟t refute - 201c(p.41). The thing you can‟t resist is the power of truth (like Aristophanes saying power of love you cant resist). Gods are there in a hidden way. Socrates exchange with Agathon – he is interrogating him. It is the same exchange between Socrates and Diotima except roles are reversed. Diotima is the teacher (the relationship is teacher-student, similar to erastes-eromenos, eros-philos). Socrates and Diotima talk about the nature of love, the middle ground, the mediation (p.43) “Translate carry messages between gods and mortals”. Spirit of love brings divinity and humanity together. When she talks bout love she describes child of plenty and poverty, “love never has any money, tough dry skin…” (p.44). Object of love is goodness itself. Says that you‟re not looking for wholeness, but goodness (doesn‟t say that Aristophanes speech is bad, just not grounded properly). Refutes that the object of love is beauty. “Love‟s purpose is physical and mental pro-creation in a physical medium.” (p.48) reflect the yearning for immortality. Why is it that love‟s purpose is procreation? Because it gives mortals immortality (children of the mind) “divine business” Closest that mortals can get to being gods. Brings up the story of Achilles (p.51) case of extreme love, HOWEVER they are dying for fame not for love. They‟re in love, with immortality (fame). “proper way to go about this business” – (p.53). Give birth to beautiful reasoning. Come to regard physical beauty as unimportant. Love people for there inside, not what their surface is like. “you should use the things of this world as rungs in a ladder…” – (p.55 – 211c) “I believe her” – (p.56 – 212b) Alcibiades: comes in drunk. His appearance displayed on p.57 top. Comes in bearing something of god celebrated in drama festival day before. “God, what‟s this? Socrates?” Not about love but about Socrates. Good looking guy but less good-looking Socrates is not interested. Confuses Socrates. “Takes people in pretending to be their lover, but then switches the roles” Compares Socrates to Silenus, a satyr. Socrates has changed Alcibiades from lover to beloved. “My heart…has been struck and bitten by philosophy…madness and ecstasy of philosophy”(p. 64). 1. Order and Disorder 2. The Role of the Divine (what is it? Is love always divine?) Symposium: sequence of speeches 1 - Phaedrus (178a ff.): mythic examples of lovers (Alcestis, Orpheus, Achilles). 2 - Pausanias (180c ff.): lawyer; expression of love in society, role of lover vs. role of beloved. 3 - Eryximachus (186a ff.): physician; love governs all, including medicine and health. 4 - Aristophanes (189c ff.): comic playwright; creation myth. 5 - Agathon (194e ff): tragic poet, host of the symposium; speaks poetically of the god of love. 6 - Socrates (201d ff.): philosopher; repeats what he was told by Diotima of Mantinea. 7 - Alcibiades (214e ff): enters late; drunk; lover of Socrates. Genesis 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM Tree is not only seen in Genesis. It has symbolic origins because it is organic, comes out of the ground as one but branches off into many, that is its paradox unity and many  Religious Tradition  Historical Context  Literary terms (us) The story of the bible is a story in translation. For all of these translators, they want to bring the bible to a wider audience. Starting at the beginning unlike Symposium. Very compartmentalized. Ch1 creation of cosmos  As division. In space, water from land. Space and earth. Verse 14: “God said let there be light…” Verse 16: “two lights greater light to rule the day and lesser light to rule the night.” **Verse 27: 1st account of creation, created in God‟s likeness Ch2 creation of man  Garden, creation of man. About the double creation of man. Verse 21: 2 ndaccount of creation “God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam…took one of his ribs…she shall be called woman…” Ch3 Sin and Expulsion  Verse 24: “Drove out the man…to keep the way of the tree of life” what‟s happening in terms of space? Man becomes of being in Eden but he is not a part of the soil of Eden. Ch4 Lineage  About generations of the Bible. Sacrifice. Ch9 “Be fruitful and populate the earth” “A token of a covenant between me and the earth.” Contract Agreement is not just between God and Noah; it‟s between God, Noah and the Sea. This idea and the covenant happen first with Noah but happen again in the Bible. Different idea of how man and God intercept then in the Iliad, in the Bible it is by CONTRACT. Because of this monotheistic version of divinity, there are some differences in the reciprocity between man and the divine. Ch17 But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. Another mention of covenant with Isaac Abraham is like Noah in that he participates in a covenant with God.  Does sacrifice not take place because you‟ve shown that you‟re ready to do it?  Who is sacrificed? Pattern in Genesis is favor given to younger son(s), who take on the covenant. How can God be all powerful and you still have will? Ch28 Jacob‟s ladder Lovely moment “house of God, gate of heaven” moment of covenant again, God shows himself, something different: Holy Space, but not a place that you make holy by making a sacrifice, but a place that God makes Holy. Similar to Diotima‟s ladder of love. Virgil‟s Aeneid 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM Written by Romans for Romans, Latin epic poem Named after the man not the city. Story from the Trojan side p.412 around l.12 in Illiad - destiny for Aeneas to be lord over the Trojans, the “chosen one” Book22: the horrible scene seen with Aeneas talked about in the Illiad has already happened once we reach the Aeneid, it is foreseen by Priam. Structure of The Aeneid (first half) 1. Arrival in Carthage; Temple of Juno 2. Back Story I: Retelling the Iliad - includes what Priam anticipated 3. Back Story II: The Trojan Odyssey? 4. Dido 5. The Shadow Troy 6. The Underworld – influences Dante‟s Inferno Book 1 l.18 (p.28) Telling the story of the Trojan horse. Present verb tense – when Aeneas tells it its as if its in the present. Happens again l.41 (p.39). First 20 lines of the Aeneid “I sing of arms and of a man..” Who is Juno? Roman version of the Greek god Hera 3 point of views: man, god(muse) First lines tell us the subject of the poem: Aeneas the son of Venus. A „fugitive‟(1.2) – to be running away from something (the fallen city). HE has escaped from city that‟s doomed. A state of exile. 2 sets of fugitives: Trojans running away from troy, and Carthusians running away from Carthage (a city facing Rome, literally and figuratively, Punic wars) to build a new empire. Aeneas is bringing the people that will build the city of Rome. Punic wars took place after narrative of the Aeneid, but before it was written l.48-50 “…It was so hard to found the race or Rome” Book 1 Setting is the Temple of Juno Before Venus and Aeneas encounter each other, Jupiter encounters him. (l.356) Formal speech. Jupiter hasn‟t changed sicne the Iliadn in his viw of the Trojans He forecasts the future and says that Aeneas will go to war in Italy and be King of Rome and his son will also find a great city. The prophecy promises a Trojan Caesar “I set no limits to their fortunes and no time;” (l.389-90) – however every empire rises and eventually falls. Venus‟ appearance – she does not initially look like a goddess, dress was like a “maiden” – like a local girl not a goddess. Her son does not recognize her. Before she reveals herself she tells the back story of Carthage. “But then who are you?...” (l.523) wants him to tell her himself. He starts complaining about how he‟s been cast away from Troy. She reveals herself after l.571-72 (“..follow where this pathway leads”), when she gives him advice to keep going. (l.647) sees pictures on the wall of story Troy. Begins to weep. Sees how things flourish and then they end. When you see something that is nothing but a picture but as if it was real. This is art on the wall…look at the art later on. This is DIFFERENT from HOMER. ^^ Ekphrasis: words describing art and historical past (in this sense, but really it could be any art form being used to describe a work of another art form) (l.683) great episodes of Trojan war, Achilles bringing Hektor around the walls of Troy. Looking in awe, he is astonished. (l.825-) Aeneas reveals himself when he first meets Dido for the first time in the Temple of Juno, looks like a god. (“shoulders like a god” –beauty of soldiers). “grace as art can add” (l.832). Dido is overcome by wonder when she sees Aeneas, just as Aeneas was in wonder when he saw the wall paintings. Dido takes them back to palace for a feast. Bond between Aeneas and Dido is being formed, Venus is trying to set this up. She deploys all of her “guile” (l.919) Dido is going to be burned by flames of love. She becomes intoxicated and dizzy by the effect of this love (l.993). Her fate is sealed, just seen more in Book 4. “All things from the first beginning” (l.1050) Book 2 Altars and Thresholds as not just parts of narrative, but as powerful symbols. The altar is lined up with the threshold as a counterpart. Aeneas recalls the omen and frightening sign seen when Glaucon and his sons were preparing to make a sacrifice to the gods Repeating emphasis on threshold: doorway, stone or wood, which marks the doorway. You‟re either in or out of the threshold. The movement past it marks a change in you as your atmosphere changes. Threshold moments:  Trojan horse shoved across the doorway - “The horse glides…”(2.332-)  (2.492)  (2.661) – Aeneas retelling what he witnessed. Everything in front of an altar  (2.693) Hecuba at the altar. Priam is on the shore – figuratively between what has ended and what is beginning. THRESHOLD AND SACRED MOMENT because it is before the altar. Priam being sacrificed. Aeneas as pious  The vision of Hektor (2.400)  Panthus giving him the household gods Emphasis on fathers and sons in the Illiad, in the Aeneid relationship between father and son shown in a different way Book 2 he is lifting up his father, the difference from Greek culture, in the Roman patriarchal relationship Book 3 Trojan Odyssey Trojans out of the city led by Aeneas. “search of fields of exile” (3.6) Exile: Trojans AND Carthusians are exiles; promised destiny at the end, similar to leading the Jews out of Egypt. Book of movement, pattern: City Island City Island City Island First effort made to set up new city “city we tried to found..”(3.25) Tried to find another city “eagerly I raise the city walls” (3.177) Stumbles upon a new Troy (3.379) “I see a little Troy..” (3.454)  Creepy it mimes the old city. Backward looking Troy. The refugees gain from this creepy Troy. Advice (3.576) Book 4 Ended Aeneas two part narration. Departure from Carthage. Dido and Aeneas plan going well. “The queen caught between love‟s gain and press..eaten by a secret flame” (4.1-) “…signs of the old flame.”(4.25) She becomes more lovesick, in a “frenzy” “crazy in love” They take refuge in a cave. (4.219-) Fate is sealed “first day of death and ruin” (4.224) beginning of the end. Rumor (4.229) Because Aeneas has taken Dido down from a position of power. Her disgrace is not private. Everyone knows. Jupiter sends Mercury to tell the message that Aeneas must leave (4.317) When Mercury delivers this message he explains why: for his son. (4.364) Dido gets eaten more in flame. Dido attacking Aeneas. Saying she‟s looking forward to her residence in the underworld(4.526) Book 5 Aeneas getting people ready to go Takes place in Sicily Series of games; serious games, similar to funeral of Patrokolos. Paying homage to the dead. Games are competitions, they let you see who‟s strong and weak. Aeneas gives prizes, giving a relationship between him and his men. 1. 1. Stratify men in terms of physical abilities and leadership abilities 2. Gives Aeneas power over his unified hierarchy 3. Aeneas as giver of gifts as “Father Aeneas” In the second competition which is a foot race, p.112 5.378)  Nisus slips from blood of sacrifice, hes out of the race, as he‟s falling (5.438), he throws himself in front of who was in first, Salius, so that his friend can pass him.  This upsets people, so Aeneas has to keep the peace. “Your awards will not be touched…” (5.458) He gives a consolation prize to Salius. This upsets Nisus because he wanted the best prize. Aeneas gives him more gifts (5.470ish). He is making everyone happy. “The best of fathers” Fortune shifts (5.795) everything falls apart in the commemoration. Dido messes everything up, and Juno. Juno sends down Iris the minor god in the form of an old women. Aeneas appeals to father Jupiter. The beautiful rituals and masculine order, is blown apart by feminine disorder. Chaos has erupted. Closes with death of Palinurus the ship captain. Book 6 Getting Aeneas ready to rule Rome. Starts with a unnamed sibyl of Cumae, foreseeing the future. Reminds of what we‟ve seen in book 1, the temple of Juno. This is another temple, also like a cave. Similar to the cave where Dido and Aeneas consummated their love. Just as scenes of Trojan war on walls, here there are paintings of past The cave in book 6 is similar to the cave in book 4, is dark and ominous, however, it is not and “end” point like the Dido cave was. This cave is a pathway that will take him where he needs to go, the underworld, where he will find his father. The sibyl is not a distraction as Dido was. She is a guide. “One thing I ask…”(6.146-) Asks Sibyl if she can take him to meet his father. “Kind prophetess I plead, take pity on both a father and a son” Lots of threshold language. In Priam‟s chamber it was about end of troy beginning of Rome. This same sort of pathway is seen in this chapter. Limen (Latin) – threshold  Liminal  Liminality People are moving into a liminal state. Are they still Trojans when troy is gone? Are the Romans? No, not yet. Eerie echoing of Troy, because they are in an inbetween state. To enter into underworld Sibyl gives Aeneas three requests(6.190) The third voice returns that is seen on the first page of the Aeneid, as they enter into underworld. Rugged geography of the underworld. Some people suffering, some people content. 6.594 – he sees Dido, who does not want to speak to him. He tries to speak to her (6.612). She turns away. He‟s going to turn away but he‟ll feel bad about it.. Father son reunion (p.153 6.898) Powerful moment for both parties. Try to embrace each other. Embrace between living and dead seen between Patrokolos and Achilles. (“Three times they try to embrace, three times it doesn‟t work”) More than a private two person bond, Not just a small family group, it encases all of Rome Virgil writing about history, but for Aeneas it‟s the future Book 7 - Less orderly, you can see the end goal of the Aeneid. Opens up with they have made it at last to Italy. Lavinia is destined to be Aeneas‟ bride, but shes engaged to Turnus. Lavinia‟s father Latinus rules the land Aeneas is destined to settle. Juno is going to interfere to slow things down, “hold off a moment” (7.408). Compared to Iliad, where gods were heavily involved in the conflict; in the Aeneid it is different. The gods do get involved a little bit, however, they‟re “girly” (Venus) or minor (Juturna) and fighting because the players of war are their relatives. Aeneas and Turnus are going to battle “orderly assembly” over Lavinia. Book 12 Then everything falls apart, after first lines 100. The flames by Juno is delaying things, creating disorder. Series of duels and conquests. Conflicts at their strongest, in the conflict between Aeneas and Lavinia. Juturna kills herself. Its not just that Aeneas a wants to win, its that he knows what he has to do. Either destroy them or subdue them. Sense of revolution p.318. Duality, two different fates, passage at end of book 12. P325 12.1041 – Olympus king calls out to Juno, Jupiter asks what her plan is since Aeneas is destined. She says she will yield..with conditions (10.1292) Says they cannot be Trojans anymore, they must let the Rome people keep their Roman-ness. Their empire cannot be named Troy. The nature of Rome mustn‟t be a new Troy; A combination of many diferent people, the Latins who were there first (ruled under Latinus). IS it different to be Roman then Trojan? They must assimilate to the Roman culture. What it means to be Roman is to absorb, anything that cannot be absorbed is eradicated.  Jupiter responds to Juno by saying he will grant her wish, saying he‟ll combine everything. Turnus is asking for mercy from Aeneas. 1262 – Aeneas changes because he remembers the ruthlessness of Turnus was, and so he takes no pity, and kills Turnus. Major Figures in the Aeneid 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM Aeneas heroic Trojan exile Anchises father of Aeneas Ascanius / Iulus son of Aeneas Creusa wife of Aeneas Carthage: Dido queen of Carthage Anna sister of Dido Iarbas African king, suitor of Dido Figures from Troy: Priam Hector Andromache Helenus Deiphobus Italy: Turnus king of the Rutulians, suitor of Lavinia Juturna nymph, sister of Turnus Latinus ruler of Latium Amata wife of Latinus Lavinia daughter of Latinus Equivalent Names for the Gods: Greek Roman Zeus Jupiter / Jove Hera Juno Poseidon Neptune Aphrodite Venus Hermes Mercury Ovid‟s Metamorphoses 9/20/2011 5:06:00 PM Writing around the same time as Virgil. He is a little bit younger than Virgil. During the rule from the heir of Caesar (Augustus). Virgil, a big name, dies when Ovid is 29. Ovid wants to put himself in the same place as Virgil, to impress Augustus. There are some similarities between his work and The Aeneid. The last 5 books for example talk about Troy and Rome. Metamorphosis = CHANGE – What is it? What is the nature of transformation? Changing the form of something that already exists. Changes happen fast. A flash. Moment of myth. The book is also about a universal history, collection of all stories ever told. A continuous history, full of mutability and flux. It has a beginning middle end. Does not contain ruptures the way the Aeneid and the Iliad change. The continuous flow of change is softer. There is stability and continuity Opening lines: “One continuous poem” however mutable. “Thread” that runs through time. Genre – way of labeling literature. What kind of genre is Metamorphosis? Could be epic in some ways, but not exactly. Gods can take on different forms when they choose too. Can disguise themselves as forms or other people. Important. Seen in Arachne‟s story Could be seen as a loose division of 3 parts: 1. Creation to Calliope‟s song 2. Arachne to Orpheus‟s song 3. Troy & Rome All kinds of beings represented in metamorphosis (animal, vegtable, mineral). Gods can also be changed. However gods have the choice to change, man does not have a choice. Different people tell the stories. Embedded narratives. CREATION TO CAL
More Less

Related notes for ENG150Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.