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ENG250Y1 - J. Winthrop & M. Rowlandson - Lecture Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Tony Fong

ENG250Y1 – LECTURE NOTES September 16, 2013 Reflection Questions: 1. What does Winthrop mean when he states "we are a company?"  could be a literal sense, he could be referring to the group of merchants including himself who were able to obtain permission to leave home and enter New England, they called themselves "the company of Massachusetts bay in New England"  could be a figurative sense, he could be referring to all followers of Christ, like a company they have a goal = to knit ourselves together by the bond of love, everyone is equal and everyone is needed by everyone  could allude to profit and prophecy 2. Is Winthrop’s justification of class stratification/inequality convincing?  in a way, yes. he does stress that inequality is needed to help create balance, to help perfect the bondage of love, "in ordering all these differences for the preservation and good for the whole" = love, following and being a part of Christ (91)  the need for inequality so that the two rules he believes are crucial are obeyed = justice and mercy 3. Is Mary Rowlandson a reliable or an unreliable narrator?  she does provide a record of what others might have gone through as well during King Philip’s war  expresses the turmoil and traumatic events of Englishmen  she could have gone in further detail about what it was like being a servant 4. How does Rowlandson reconcile the fact that she and the puritans are god's chosen people and yet, "god seemed to leave his people to themselves"?  she justifies this by stressing that one needs to be patient in order to receive god's mercy  she quotes Moses from exodus: "stand still and see the salvation of The Lord"  says that she has learned to look beyond present and smaller troubles and to be quietd under them (143)  says that god's love is shown through his mercy towards the people  instead of worrying about present issues, one should look forward to the future  the sense of hope is a necessity to continue and move forward in life  says that it is the desire of the soul that we may walk worthy of the mercies received, and which we are receiving (142)  stresses that having hope and a positive outlook on life is what makes us deserving of the good fortune we do obtain later  having hope makes you cherish what you later get more so Puritanism:  J. Winthrop suffered a fever an early age and believed he understood suffering, and realized he was coming closer to god despite the fact he lost some of the joys of life  puritans saw Roman Catholicism as antichrist, corrupt  queen Mary was catholic and enforced that, when her sister Elizabeth took over, she was protestant so overthrew the rules her Mary sought to reinforce Catholicism  puritans originally was a negative term  puritanism worship Adam and Jesus but didn't care for his birth and cruxification, so Christmas and Easter was considered paganism; didn’t care for the rituals  when King James took over Elizabeth, he wouldn't hear of any puritanism, influenced many to leave England, there was a fear of prosecution  possibility of renewing Eden, left for the protection of their children's souls  leaving England was not a form of escapism, wanted to maintain relationship with Britain to change the world view, purify the world of Christianity in a new battle field  saw the world as evil because of the fallen man, constantly anxious, can't be sure if they are sinless or salved, they as a group were chosen, as individuals they are damned Five points: 1. unconditional election = chosen people, believed that Catholics could buy their own salvation, unfair for the poor, the belief that the individual has no chance or power to gain salvation 2. limited atonement = if you weren't chosen you could be saved 3. total depravity 4. irresistible grace = either have it or you don't 5. perseverance of saints = saints are those who are chosen/elected *themes or features in much of the texts of this time J. Winthrop’s “A Model of Christian Charity”:  sees the new world as a renewal but also foreboding  no individual could fulfill the destiny of the land, only as a collective  only the puritans could make the land a city upon a hill  (101) = if we are good, we will be a model to look up to, if we fail, we will be regarded as giving up proving we are the chosen people "we shall find that the god of Israel..."  success - thrive and prosper / fail - turn blessing into a curse  opens sermon with discourse of philosophical concerns  second half discusses immediate responsibilities  (99) = "we are a company professing....they were acquainted with them", love they share is Christians, protective notion of Christianity, without love the world will suffer  blurs the lines between sacred and secular  (91) some must be rich and some be poor, because 1) god works in many ways, so man should be different in many ways 2) everyone has a purpose, the body metaphor, man becomes interdependent because of all these differences and tasks 3) so justice and mercy can be exhibited 4) because of the variety of people = be saved or damned the god is able
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