Class Notes (1,200,000)
CA (650,000)
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Course Code
Clare Hasenkampf

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Nov 16
Secondary sources; need about 3 per subtopic
oOne source per page
Don't get so focused on secondary sources
oWant your opinion
Exam official information will be for next week
o4 parts
oFirst corresponds to electronic exercises
m/c on basic language concepts (words, sounds, grammar - textbook
and especially upcoming e-xercises)
oSome short-answer questions on specific linguistic variants (honour or honor)
oSome on creative use of language (dude in Bud Lite ad)
oMini-essay question that you'll get ahead of time and can be answered from
the textbook and your course notes
Will be given topic ahead of time
Later will get official information for exam
Class for today from chapter 11
Language Variation AND Identity
oWhether language reflects who we are
oOr whether language constructs identity in a more flexible way
Does it reflect or construct who we are?
Language variation in 19th C
oMeant regional usually
oAreas red on map
Lines between colours called isoglosses = mark where rural dialects
were rhotic in the 1950's
Why did linguistic study rural dialects at that point
oRural dialects tend to be more conservative
oNon-mobile older rural male
Likely not effected by changing trends
Don't experience dialect leveling
Interest in purity of language
oOrigins of nation
A historical digression
Methods of first dialectologists
oFirst method had many subjects, but all from similar class, education
oSecond had less data
oBut first has exposure and awareness of rural dialects
oSecond method more candid, shows more natural speech patterns
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Non-rhotic pronunciation in the US
oRed areas are non-rhotic
oHow did it get to those places?
Eastern seaboard, closer to Britain
Perceptual dialectology
or-dropping has difference status in Britain compared to states
Britain is statusful, not in states
oNothing correct about r or no r
Very subjective
A methodological digression: how do you evaluate accents?
oFiguring out what people think about accents
Doesn't anybody study Canada?
Canadian Variationist Socialinguistics
oCheck out this survey
Some of his linguistic variables have distinct drop-offs at the border
Language varies not just according to where we live, but gender, age, education
oAge patterns for avenue
oSeems to drop with younger generations
Variationist Sociolinguistics
When our language varies and whether we're aware of it
Can sometimes vary at a conscious level
oUse of variants like g-droppin'
oMarker used for variants
Might be subject, listener
Shifted by an individual
oIn a population, variants are called indicators
Not switching at individual level
Distinguishing variation to group of people
Terms that text book does use
oChange from above (level of consciousness)
Socially marked variables
Nyers notice if people drop r's
Change from below
oNot aware of the variation
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