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ENG303 130211.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Divorce Tract  “burning”  burning of lust (for/in lust) vs for companionship  1 Corinthians – to unmarried and widows… if can’t contain, marry than burn  marriage as remedy  carnal lust like cattle… desire and longing to put off unsolitariness by uniting  desire put in Adam before his fall  pure and inbred desire, fellowship of conversing soul o First we know St.Paul saith, It is better to marry then to burn. Mariage therfore was giv'n as a remedy of that trouble: but what might this burning mean? Certainly not the meer motion of carnall lust, not the meer goad of a sensitive desire; God does not principally take care for such cattell. What is it then but that desire which God put into Adam in Paradise before he knew the sin of incontinence; that desire which God saw it was not good that man should be left alone to burn in; the desire and longing to put off an unkindly solitarines by uniting another body, but not without a fit soule to his in the cheerfull society of wedlock. Which if it were so needfull before the fall, when man was much more perfect inhimselfe, how much more is it needfull now against all the sorrows and casualties of this life to have an intimate and speaking help, a ready and reviving associate in marriage; wherof who misses by chancing on a mute and spiritles mate, remains more alone then before, and in a burning lesse to be contain'dthen that which is fleshly and more to be consider'd; as being more deeply rooted even in the faultles innocence of nature. As for that other burning, which is but as it were the venom of a lusty and over-abounding concoction, strict life and labour, with the abatement of a full diet may keep that low and obedient enough: but this pure and more inbred desire of joyning to it selfe in conjugall fellowship a fit conversing soul (which desire is properly call'dlove) is stronger then death, as the spouse of Christ thought, many waters cannot quench it, neither can the floods drown it. This is that rationall burning that mariage is to remedy, not to be allay'd with fasting, nor with any penance to be subdu'd, which how can he asswage who by mis- hap hath met the most unmeetest and unsutable mind? Who hath the power to struggle with an intelligible flame, not in paradice to be resisted, become now more ardent, by being fail'd of what in reason it lookt for; and even then most unquencht, when the importunity of a provender burning is well enough appeas'd; and yet the soule hath obtain'd nothing of what it justly desires. o Love was the son of Lonelines, begot in Paradise by that sociable andhelpfull aptitude which God implanted between man and woman toward each other. The same also is that burning mention'd by S.Paul, whereof marriage ought to be the remedy; the Flesh hath other naturall and easie curbs which are in the power of any temperate man. When therfore this originall and sinles Penury or Lonelines of the soul cannot lay it selfe down by the side of such a meet and acceptable union as God ordain'd in marriage, at least in some proportion, it cannot conceive and bring forth Love, but remains utterly unmarried under a formall wedlock  Personification of love, begot out of loneliness before the fall – true burning  Marriage should truly be remedy for this burning  Original and sinless penury (extreme poverty), feeling of lack, not having one thing filling void  Lack defines us to core, fundamentally human because original and sinless  Not result of original sin but there at start in Adam  Can be physically and formally married but be utterly unmarried  Reconcile two motivations traced in writing  First tract personally motivated… censored -> leads to Areopagitica  Not hoping to secure divorce  Personal experience provoking him to see larger problems in legal institutions privileging physical aspect of marriage above social/emotional  Humiliation and disappointment way for him to negotiate own conflict, companionship idea as Protestantism was still inventing it Philips – A Married State  Reality of early modern women of death during childbirth or child dying in birth  Window of independent female outside of system  Vs gendered language of Milton o Lest therfore so noble a creature as man should be shut up incurably under a worse evill by an easie mistake in that ordinance which God gave him to remedy a lesse evill, reaping to himselfe sorrow while he went to rid away solitarines, it cannot avoid to be concluded, that if the woman be naturally so of disposition, as will not help to remove, but help to increase that same God-forbidd'n lonelines which will in time draw on with it a generall discomfort and dejection of minde, not beseeming either Christian profession or morall conversation, unprofitable and dangerous to the Common-wealth, when the houshold estate, out of which must flourish forth the vigor and spirit of all publick enterprizes, is so ill contented and procur'd at home, and cannot be supported; such a mariage can be no mariage whereto the most honest end is wanting: and the aggrieved person shall doe more manly, to be extraordinary and singular in claiming the due right whereof he is frustrated, then to piece up his lost contentment by visiting the Stews, or stepping to his neighbours bed, which is the common shift in this mis-fortune, or els by suffering his usefull life to wast away and be lost under a secret affliction of an unconscionable size to humane strength. Against all which evills, the mercy of this Mosaick Law was graciously exhibited.  Stews – prostitute  Rather than allow prostitutes or sleeping with neighbor women, better to allow divorce  Contradiction  Written from man’s perspective, can’t realistically have equality implied with companionship between man and woman  Emphasizing Adam and Eve relationship, equal marriage but Adam comes first  Complicating misogynist views  Ahead of his time about compatibility in England (comes in 1970s)  Social radical Tenure of Kings and Magistrates  Tyranny and monarch’s authority limits issues  First and only time England kills own monarch – Charles I – abused privilege  Beheading is culmination of crisis of authority building over years of civil war  Divine authority of king, will of God  Pitfalls in doctrine  Absolute power and absolute corruption  Stuarts favouring autocratic rule, strong control, doing things people object to  Charles dismisses Parliament, levies crazy taxes and wars, does offending things to people… forced to call back Parliament for money, puts limitations on monarch powers on parliament  Filmer – Patriarcha o Against unnatural liberty of people o Object to liberty of people -> link desire for liberty to Adam’s fall o Liberty desire -> sin o Head of family, father to children o Adam command over children, subordination to first parent over generations o Original fathership gone, so king stand in although not natural father o Ordination of God himself o Divine institution, based on authority of biblical patriarchs o Patriarchs after Adam, Moses, Isaac… kingship inherent of ancestry o [implying that parents are good just by being parents] o discourse of loyalty to benevolent father, emotive force of devotion o supposed to be ideal of family  Hobbes – Leviathan o nature = art, God = artist o analogy between state and man o body politic o Leviathan – biblical monster in sea, prime evidence of God’s power beyond human comprehension and measure o Symbol for need for power over men o Commonwealth needed for structure, all-powerful figure o Sovereignty as soul, magistrate joints, wealth is strength o Sommum bonum (greatest good) doesn’t exist but sommum malum, so people need to give up individual nature, obey laws o All men created equal in power -> implies someone rules not because of natural power o But from equality of ability… rises hope of attaining ends, if two men want same things, become enemies o Some will pursue more than they need o State of nature – condition of mankind, if not organized in civil society, destroy selves o Competition, diffidence and glory o Without common power to keep them in awe -> condition of war, every man against every man o Perpetual condition and state, risk everytime o Continual fear… life of man solitary, short, nasty, brutish… state of life o Laying down rights, be content with so much liberty against other man as others would allow himself o Give up rights so ensure others don't unhinge on you o Question of enforcing control -> Leviathan, necessity of organization o Logic
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