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Book 3  Theological grounding of son sacrificing o 236Behold mee then, mee for him, life for life o 237I offer, on mee let thine anger fall; o 238Account mee man; I for his sake will leave o 239Thy bosom, and this glorie next to thee o 240Freely put off, and for him lastly dye  parallel of son’s sacrifice to Satan’s offer, moment of greater sacrifice that proves son’s merit and greatness  value of free obedience, son weakening self to save  on me let thine anger fall  paradox of free will, against orthodox Calvinist (fellow Puritans) predestination  man free will but truly free only when choose God  value of free choice  risking heresy by putting words in God’s mouth, lessen heresy through biblical allusions  omniscient God, not blaming him for human’s fall even though he knows what will happen  Holy Trinity tension – God and Christ separate characters with different comments but share same mind, mysterious relationship (plea for volunteer -> must know son will volunteer -> but not of same mind?)  Primum mobile -> first mover, sphere responsible for creating movement of all other spheres in geocentric model (fantastic cosmology in Milton, hard crust of vast continent, no sky but darkness of chaos that Satan voyaging through)  Allegorical paradise of fools -> primum mobile becomes limbo, earth rise up because too trivial to stay below so become dwelling place for fools  Tension between old model and Copernican model o 570Thrice happy Iles, but who dwelt happy there o 571He stayd not to enquire: above them all o 572The golden Sun in splendor likest Heaven o 573Allur'd his eye: Thither his course he bends o 574Through the calm Firmament; but up or downe o 575By center, or eccentric, hard to tell, o 576Or Longitude, where the great Luminarie o 577Alooff the vulgar Constellations thick, o 578That from his Lordly eye keep distance due, o 579Dispenses Light from farr  declines to say where exactly sun is, foregrounds question instead  different models of cosmology o 588There lands the Fiend, a spot like which perhaps o 589Astronomer in the Sun's lucent Orbe o 590Through his glaz'd Optic Tube yet never saw.  Multiple references to Galileo throughout poem (3)  Astronomer – Galileo (second reference), only 17CE person mentioned in poem  Unreliability of vision, spots on sun that Galileo finds… previously thought to be perfect and heavenly -> geographical phenomenon  Limits of science, potential for science to offer access, yet never fully satiate  Hunger and desire for knowledge  Spot vs Satan on solar surface… size, proportionality  Satan disguise as Cherub -> bottom hierarchy of angels  Uriel deceived, doesn’t recognize hypocrisy/deception (only God does) because devout and good  Fraud – bad sin especially because trick innocent without being aware o 694Fair Angel, thy desire which tends to know o 695The works of God, thereby to glorifie o 696The great Work-Maister, leads to no excess o 697That reaches blame, but rather merits praise o 698The more it seems excess Book 4  problem of knowledge in particular, question of depicting Eden  Eden supposed to be experienced not represented, not Eden if portrayed  Issue of starting book with Satan’s point of view o 13Yet not rejoycing in his speed, though bold, o 14Far off and fearless, nor with cause to boast, o 15Begins his dire attempt, which nigh the birth o 16Now rowling, boiles in his tumultuous brest, o 17And like a devillish Engine back recoiles o 18Upon himself; horror and doubt distract o 19His troubl'd thoughts, and from the bottom stirr o 20The Hell within him, for within him Hell o 21He brings, and round about him, nor from Hell o 22One step no more then from himself can fly o 23By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair o 24That slumberd, wakes the bitter memorie o 25Of what he was, what is, and what must be o 26Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue.  Satan’s inner perpective, echo of earlier line  Mind can make heaven of hell and hell of heaven (opening of book 1) – Satan saying not all lost, can make it better…  Was inspiring -> psychological mind of hell being worked out further  Closer to heaven -> feel out of place because bring hell (reverse of what he said before)  Perverted meaning, not that he can transform hell to fantastic place but his mind is always condition of hell, mind is prison, can be tormented in any place even in paradise  No longer hero -> knows he can try and change but knows he won’t be able to give in to God or repent sincerely  Only way is to continue wickedness and explore it further  Despair – temporary uncertainty… because even beautiful place can’t cleanse him  Hell state of mind against God o 37O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams o 38That bring to my remembrance from what state o 39I fell, how glorious once above thy Spheare; o 40Till Pride and worse Ambition threw me down o 41Warring in Heav'n against Heav'ns matchless King: o 42Ah wherefore! he deservd no such return o 43From me, whom he created what I was  Son and Sun  God privileged Son over Satan -> ambition and jealousy -> fall  God didn’t deserve what he did to him and God did create him  Acknowledging debt relieves duty to repay it  Admitting guilt openly but against repentance, damns self in this moment, irredeemable  Emotions are written on his face that betray him counterfeit, angels should always be in good mood -> Uriel notices  God will save humans because tricked to fall by devils, but fallen angels’ sin came from themselves  Monumental figure -> cherub -> inner turmoil gives away disguise -> predatory animals -> bird -> toad… becomes more lowly  Ultimate resolution to not repent  God and Son making up Godhead… justice and law -> love and compassion  Milton wants readers to think of them as Godhead, complementing each other, Father and Son  Not theology but literature  Free will and accounting for fallen state of humans  Xianity acknowledging how humans are inherently fallen and Milton attempt to explain how that works, how greater good comes out of fall  Disobedience and fruit -> why is fruit good thing  God tyrant vs not  Satan at border of Eden  Garden described to be enclosed by thick forest, high walls of paradise, Satan overlooks nether empire o 158Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole o 159Those balmie spoiles. As when to them who saile o 160Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past o 161Mozambic, off at Sea North-East windes blow o 162Sabean Odours from the spicie shoare o 163Of Arabie the blest, with such delay o 164Well pleas'd they slack thir course, and many a League o 165Chear'd with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles.  Echo of Satan coming from Africa…  Colonial metaphor  Promise of great place to exploit o 172Now to th' ascent of that steep savage Hill o 173Satan had journied on, pensive and slow; o 174But further way found none, so thick entwin'd, o 175As one continu'd brake, the undergrowth o 176Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplext o 177All path of Man or Beast that past that way: o 178One Gate there only was, and that look'd East o 179On th' other side: which when th' arch-fellon saw o 180Due entrance he disdaind, and in contempt, o 181At one slight bound high over leap'd all bound o 182Of Hill or highest Wall, and sheer within o 183Lights on his feet
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