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Lecture

# Env 200 lec 4 jan 22.docx

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Department
School of Environment
Course Code
ENV200H1
Professor
Karen Ing

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Env 200 lec 4 jan 22
Systems
o The planet’s env consists of complex network of interlinked systems ex: ecological webs, interaction
of living species with surrounding landscapes, biogeochemical cycles,
o Network of relationships among parts that interact and influence one another
There are parts in that system that influence and interact with each other
Feedback loops
Earth systems are usually:
o Cyclic; goes through a cycle
o Hierarchical
o W.o human interference systems balance (but with regional/Local disparities in time and space)
Box and arrow diagrams are used to understand and predict system change
o If flux rate (arrows) into the pool exceeds the flux out the pool grows
If more water goes into the water than coming out of the ocean, then your box (the pool of
storage) will shrink
If u have less water than your box and more if coming then your box will grow
Flux in + flux out =steady state
We now have an element of predictability
We can measure rates of input And output and if they are no equal, we can predict the
changes that will eventually have to show up in the pool
Residence time tells how long a particular element will remain in a pool (this is how we know
co2)
We measure residence time by:
o The avg amount of time that a thing spends in a particular system the
capacity of the system divided by the rather of flow of particles through the
system
Positive and negative feedback loops
o Feedback loop
Circular process
o Positive feedback loop
Change becomes more pronounced
o Negative feedback loop
Change is reduced or inhibited
Positive feedback; leading to divergent behaviour
o As long as we get divergent
o That the system is changing there is not positive or negative connotations associated with the axis;
that causes change in your system
o In everyday language we may use positive feedback to describe something good that has happened
o There is no good or bad when we are speaking of positive feedback in system, there is just hcange
o Ex: of + feedback
Exponential growth in human pop
Disease epidemic and cancer = out of control expansion
Bankruptcy, economic depressions, erosion= inescapable spiraling down
Negative feedback; change is reduced leading to stability

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