ESS102H1 Lecture Notes - Feldspar, Pesticide, Clastic Rock

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Published on 22 Jan 2013
School
Department
Course
GLG205 January 17, 2013
Glacial interglacial cycles
- Normal levels
- Temp fluctuate 8 -10 degrees amplified when both poles have ice
- Temp c02 correlated
- Uncomforatbale periods for macroorgnisms glacial and inter glacial periods
- Not suvive bc more succeptile to human climate change but numbers down bc of humans
- Co2 at 290ppm
- More gases planet will warm
Global change
Some basics
2
- Protons balanced by same number of electrons
- Electrons bonding characterisitic
The earth
- One large mixture all three phases
Radio
- Some atoms formed during stars exploding unstable and those unstable they will give off energy
or particle and converted
- Alpha particle atom spits out helium
- Gamma just energy
Decay
- Decay at predictive rate
- Start with 100 percetn parent follows exponential curve daughter into goes up
- Parent daughter ratio and know decay constant put date to something
Time scale
- Through dating radio decay and ustable isotopes dates put on figures
Sequence of events
- Two major ways of date things not always able to measure using geochronology
- Not possible til instruments developed measure these things
- Two ways date things
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- Sequence of events stratigraphy relative age dating
- Lava flow is younger then the road
- Looked at rocks
Abs age
- Put things in order
- Law of superposition bottom older then top
- Before 20th century and discovery of unstable isotopes radioactivey and mass spectromemter
instrumebt measue at high enough precision
Time scale
- Used similar fossils in units to cross correlate layers over mass distances
- Bony shells and well preserved before unicellular poor presentation and not much geo could do
to differntaite or cross corealate
- A lot of differentiation with bony sheeled organisms
- Major shifts in organisms
- Ass major changes in earths chemistry
Aage of earth
- Bible is 6000 years old
- Hutton progression of rocks sedimentary rocks represent in and out of water deposit of shale
and mudtsude ass with shallow seas and recceeed and come back
- Past cycle of deposition and massice uplift of mountain ridges
- Same processes today in past
- Record very old
In 19th century
- Erosion rates the valley to form 300 million at least
- All gravitational energy to smash planet how long to cool
- Did not know other heat source
1896
- Istopes discovered
- Idea dating and while for instrument to do dating in 1953
- Used lead isotopes
- 4.55 age not improved on
- Claire datinfg lead isotopes and next 30 years fighting oil industry get lead from oil and almost
fired from university one man battle for 20 years
Time scale
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- Ash layer minerals good for age dating
- Large ash layer deposited everywhere good mass correlation
Basic geolog
- Most intereersted in crust upper lithosp
- Litho is 100 km of upper planet
- Liquid outer solid inner
Plaet tectonics
- Two meet intense geo activity
- Midocean ridges are
Boundaries
- Only planet in our solar system plate tectonics
- Diffuse lines allow heat creep out of
- Slow constant heat comes out and plates move around diverginent away
- Midocean ridge is blue
- Coming together converge uplift
- and transform san andreas
- 30 plates largest shown
- Plate consists of crust and mantle thick layer of hot rock
- Floats on aesthenosphere so hot float even though solid
- Pangea masses in luarasi godwannaland
2 types
- Cont less dense thick and older
- Constantly formed at mid ocean ridge oceanic
Plate tectonics
- Drived from radioactive decay today
- Convection currents
- Spreading material from mantle forms new crust spreads away
- Cean crust denser subduction some scrapped onto continentets
Divergent
- Close is younger cools and more desnse and sinks mountain range of sea higher colder denser
and older and more flat
Polarity
- Shifts polarity in earth iron in rocks
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