ESS102H1 Lecture Notes - Dominate, Reflection Seismology, Oil Sands

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GLG205 January 31, 2013
35 MC AND 1 PAGE SA WHAT DRIVES ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION
WATER resovoir
- 97 water ocean salt
- Small 3 percent two thirds glacier
- Less then 1 surface water
- Small in biota
- Biggest impact on freshwater are fossil fuel use and agriculture
Freshwater
- A lot in cryosphere or glacial
- Two thirds fresh water budget
- Not accessible human use Greenland continental ice sheets there
Cryoshpere
- Most locked in Greenland or antartica
- 800k ice core records sample trap gas back in the day
- Global temp and percipiation
- So thick sample core chronology of time
- Not important fresh water but climate change their melting where they melt high altitude dense
water form when add fresh water harder for it to become dense
- Melt all Greenland and artica 60m of immediate sea rise
- Isostatic rebound 5 million years 100m overall
Groundwater
- Most important
- Ogallall drained 50 percent by agriciulture
Next
- Percepiation comes down
- Run into stream lake s river lake some perulate to ground and store in underground aquifers
some confined under pressure confining layer some unconfined somethnf permeable tap into
them through wells
- Confined like bc pressure drive natural flow nothing fancy get at water
Next
- Groundwater discharge into river or coast into ocan
- Or actively pumped by humans and changes flow path of underground aquifer
- Coast down make saltwater intrusion into aquifers
- Recharge varaibilty of timescales unreneweable bc not renewable on human time scales
Surface water
- Streams pomds and lake small perxent total water
- Considered renewable bc constantly refreshed
- Fed by rain and getter new rain and refreshed renewable only certain amount
- How much agrciultrure get from one river
- Withdraw 30 percent without impacting ecosystem that rely on river many more then 30
percent
Watershed
- Area drains into single river
- Small stream the valley around it
- The missisipi is really large shed
- All water percipatie not in ground water make way into missiisipi to gulf of mexico
- Wqatershed large or small
Global water issues
- Demand for food and water problems mord and more serious and quality of water of whther
drinkable or not
- Quite large transboundary bc one polluting and goes downstream how hold another country
responsible
- Not own an aquifer can own surface water if own land
- Issues of coastel aquiders and salt water intusuion
Biosphere
- Anything living or dead organic chemist definition made of reduced carbon that is biological
origin
- Ecosohere the biospshere and other system interaction
Ecosphere
- Graoh majority of life lives in habitable zone 100m below sea level to 6000 m above sea level
- Life exist above and below losw not make a lot of biomass on planet
Biodiversity
- Number of species given area
- Different ways classic is common morpholigalc or gentic or function on earth what they did
- Recent advances dna sequencing more sophisticated genealogical relationships established
Class on geneology
- Viruses are acellulr no cell dna and rna floating around need other life to exist
- Prok and wuk have cell walls prok nucleus is free no separate membrane euk more sophisticated
separate nucleus membrane
Prok spread in smaller grups
- 2 main groups of prok bacteria and archera
- Make up bulk of life on planet
- Exist 3.4 3.5 billion to present
- Euk till about 2 billion
- Ancient life forms
- Set up in many biogeochemical cycles
- Pic of microbial mat fossilized from cyanobacteria
Unicellular
- Many photosynthesis in ocean
Fungi
- Decomposers in nature decvaying organic matter can be uni multiclelular as well
Plane
- Plants
- Also be unicellular
- Plants single cell organisms
- Photautotrops primary producers use water co2 and light
Animals
- Only multicellular
- Distinguished need to ingest complex organic matter rely on other kingdoms to survive
How ecosystems work
- Pro and euk
What Is ecolo
- Study of interactions of organism and surrounding
- Abiotic ecerything non living
Next
- Various scales