glg205 feb 14

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Published on 20 Feb 2013
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GLG205 February 14, 2013
Continental shelf and open ocean
- Different in biology chemistry
- Pelagic water column
- Benthic anything that lives on te botoom
Opne ocia
- Pelagic both shalwllow phtoc light can penetrate
- And aphotic which is must of the ocean dark cold and deep
- Benthic open ocean realy deep not a lot of life lot of bacteria,
Major ocean life zones
- Contnentnal shelf regions 100 to 200 me
- Pretty shallw
- Contnintenal shelf drop off
- Upper photc zone and deep
- Live on sinking organic matter
- Respiration in deep ocean but single ceeled organisms
- Benthic of shelf is photosytnhize
Benthic
- Anything ocean floor attached to sediments
- Shallow zone
- Big ecosystems like coral and seagreass and kelp high productivity and diversity of organism
- Richest is mid ocean ridges living heat and energy mied ocean spreading centers heat from
interior of the earth
Coral reeds
- Ocran impacts one system is coral reef
- Soft bodies organisms make homes out of calcium carbonate
- Coral reefs big one make home out of it
- Coral perseverd in limestone
- Reefs are funny warm shallow calm water strict temperature range not too turbulent not a lot
of wave action
- Clear changes to coastal environment and hate increased erosion in continents
The worlds corals
- Live between 30 and 30 not too much further then to burmuda
- Cluster in there
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Coral reefs
- Like rainforest of marine system most diverse place of organisms
- Over half marine species live in ass of coral reef system
- Benefits
- Ecosystem services one way politicians or ecologist package ecosystem
- Protecting coastlines break waves come in
- High prudctiuvity lots of fisheries ass with them for recreastion and tourism
- Pharm coming drugs of coral reef organism help with cataract
- Like rainforest half pharm from there
- Coral reef is another place looking destroying it before finding out
Sea grasses
- Similar coral reefs
- Provide habitat
- Sea grass shlaowow high producitivtiy
kelp
- Anaimsl ass with corals are and kelps photos
- Habitiat for many organisms as well
Pelagic
- Water column on shelf
- Shefl region high productivity - highest in ocean is shelves bc nutruients are dense here and
upwelling
- Rich nutrients upwelling and river that don’t make to open ocean used in coast
- All photic zone
- Lots photsyn and large base food chain then much larger food web higer tropic organisms like to
eat
The open ocean
- Look 50 m done bc not a lot of productivity, coast only few m bec phytoplankton bc organism
phot
- Subtropical gyres ocean deserrs
- Chloryphll pigment in plant material proxy primary producers
- Most of ocean is pretty low
- Open ocean highest prodicty is ass with high latitudes
- In high lat of land not water to break down soil and permafrost ocean organism not care about
water care about nutrients bc have upwelling
- North atlantic closed heavily by continests so get continental input from weathering then south
pacific no continent for almost anywhere
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- Prodcutivty with equatirila level bc upwelling along western coast of continests and carried
westward
- Desolate there
- Single cell in open ocean
- At least 20 to 50 done by organism cyanobacteria ancient life forms
- Lots of photosytnesis contrast to terresrterial photo done by trees or big plants
The open ocean
- Live at midocean ridges or heterotrops eat rained from surface
- Adapted own light source
- Hard to keep organisms alive bc need high pressure
- Know is from dead ones
- High diversity bc lot of different organisms and adapted to live in extremem enviroemnt but low
density
Human impacts
- Climate chmage for oceans and coral reefs
- And result in ocean acidification
- Fishing on coastal regions
- Invasive spacies on boats and released other places truck in organism s
- Overfishing
- Pollution 25 percent is by catch is tossed away and killed not considered what want to catch
- And coasral devleopemnt
Human impacts
- In science top journals
- Highlight open ocean
- 40 percent ocean is seriously impacted by humans
Biomasss and productivity
- Amount of living organic matter in certain area
- Phytomass most of biomass orimary profdcuers
- Most primary producers are photosyn organisms not hetertropes living on energy from another
soruces
- Most are terrestrial
- Producutivty how biomass is formed
- Terrestrial eco take more carbon then marine and store more in plant matter
Terr vs marine
- Teresrerial have a lot of structures large store houses of organic matter
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