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30 Oct 2010
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Lecture 5 t hydrosphere
May 27, 2010
Water reservoirs
- Water on earth is found in several reservoirs: oceans, cryosphere (ice caps and glaciers),
groundwater, lakes, soils, atmosphere, rivers, and living organisms
- The average length of time that water stays in a particular reservoir is called the residence time
The hydrologic cycle
- Water constantly moves from reservoir to reservoir
- Water in ocean evaporates into the atmosphere
o It then condenses into clouds and then rain down back into the ocean or blown onto
land
- Water that evaporates from trees go through evapotranspiration
- Some water runs off the land and makes it back into the stream, lake, ocean
- Some water gets absorbed into the soil and becomes groundwater
- Most freshwater is tied up in ice
- Most of the tiny part of freshwater that is usable is in lakes
Oceans
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- Trenches are found at a convergent zone where one plate is subducting under the other
- Structure:
o 2 layers:
Surface layer
x Warmer because of solar radiation
x Less dense because its warm
Deep layer
o The layers are separated by thermocline: depth interval where temperature gradient
changes the greatest
The stable layering of the ocean makes mixing between upper and deep ocean a
slow process
Ocean: Waves
- Created by wind (that is created because of solar energy)
- They develop because of the shear between the molecules of air in the wind and the molecules
of water at the surface of the sea
- Energy is transferred from the air to the water
- Tsunami also cause waves
Ocean: Tsunamis
- Usually generated by the sudden displacement of the sea floor caused by an earthquake
- Wavelengths of 100-200km; periods of 10-20min; speeds of up to 800km/h
Ocean: Tides
- Periodic tides are caused by the gravitational effects of the moon and the sun
- If earth, moon, and sun are all lined up, the gravitational effects are the highest
- If they are perpendicular, the gravitational effects are lowest
- Opposite sides of the world experience opposite tidal effects
Ocean: surface currents
- Driven by atmospheric winds
- Red circular patterns are called gyres
- Bring warm water from the equator to the poles t distributing heat
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Document Summary

Water on earth is found in several reservoirs: oceans, cryosphere (ice caps and glaciers), groundwater, lakes, soils, atmosphere, rivers, and living organisms. The average length of time that water stays in a particular reservoir is called the residence time. Water constantly moves from reservoir to reservoir. Water in ocean evaporates into the atmosphere. It then condenses into clouds and then rain down back into the ocean or blown onto land. Some water runs off the land and makes it back into the stream, lake, ocean. Some water gets absorbed into the soil and becomes groundwater. Water that evaporates from trees go through evapotranspiration. Most freshwater is tied up in ice. Most of the tiny part of freshwater that is usable is in lakes. Trenches are found at a convergent zone where one plate is subducting under the other. S deep layer: the layers are separated by thermocline: depth interval where temperature gradient changes the greatest.

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