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30 Oct 2010
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Glg205 t 6
- On earth there are numerous different life forms. This abundamce of different life forms is
called biodiversity
Prokaryotes
- Single celled organisms that have a cell wall but the nucleus of the cell is not bound by a
membrane
Eukaryotes
- Protoctista
o Unicellular organization
- fungi
o Live on decaying organic matter
Ecosystem including the organism (biosphere) and its environment (lithosphere, atmostphere,
hydrosphere)
- Ecosystems have to have energy and nutrient sources (e.g. sun, other organism)
- Producers autotrophs
- Heterotrophs: organisms that need to consumer complex organic compounds to grow their
tissues and for energy
- Decomposers
o Essential in the decomposition of dead organisms
- The feeding level occupied by an organism in a food chain represents its trophic level
- 6 elements form about 95% of plant matter: C, H, O, N, S, P
Ecological pyramids
- Each trophic level is smaller because 10% of energy is lost at each trophic level
ecosphere
- The majority of life is restricted to a zone between 200m below the surface of the oceans to
6000m above sea level
Biomes
- The ecosphere can be divided into terrestrial and aquatic biomes
Aquatic biomes
- Benthic t live on the bottom
Extinctions
- 6 major mass extinctions just in the phanerozoic
Biomass
- Most of the carbon is stored on land
o But even more is in the atmosphere
- The open ocean is not very productive but it has a large area
o More productivitiy in the upwelling areas but it has a smaller area
- 30% of oceanic biomass is in estuaries
o 35% in coral reefs/algal beds
- Very low productivity in deserts
o 43% of terrestrial biomass stored in rainforest
Evolution of forest
- *timescale of evolution + major extinction
- Geologists want to know about forest because of oil and carbon cycle
Long-term changes in forests
- Pollen record in lake sediments t palynology
- Open forest have 30% cover vs. closed forest that have 70% cover
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Document Summary

On earth there are numerous different life forms. This abundamce of different life forms is called biodiversity. Single celled organisms that have a cell wall but the nucleus of the cell is not bound by a membrane. Protoctista: unicellular organization fungi, live on decaying organic matter. Ecosystem including the organism (biosphere) and its environment (lithosphere, atmostphere, hydrosphere) Ecosystems have to have energy and nutrient sources (e. g. sun, other organism) Heterotrophs: organisms that need to consumer complex organic compounds to grow their tissues and for energy. Decomposers: essential in the decomposition of dead organisms. The feeding level occupied by an organism in a food chain represents its trophic level. 6 elements form about 95% of plant matter: c, h, o, n, s, p. Each trophic level is smaller because 10% of energy is lost at each trophic level ecosphere. The majority of life is restricted to a zone between 200m below the surface of the oceans to.

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