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Lecture 8

Lecture 8


Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
ESS102H1
Professor
Christine Burton
Lecture
8

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GLG205 t 8
Change is normal
- Human induced change (fast rates of change)
World populations and sustainability
- D}}(}Ç[(o}v(µvXModern ecosystems developed.
- Ours is the Holocene interglacial
- Sustainability: how can we meet our needs without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their needs
Hunter-gatherers
- Temporary habitation, move around a lot
- Local t only affected the local area
o Now what we do affects the world globally
Agricultural revolution
- Began settling in one area
- For thousands of years, only gradual increase in population and resource use
Industrial revolution
- Development of machinery
- Mass production of goods
Technological revolution
- Further increased (of wasteful) consumption on luxuries
- Global disparity in distribution of resources
Sustainability
- Sustainable development implies economic progress, investment in human resources, stable
population growth, and a technology that does not degrade the environment
The world is split in two
- ZÀo}uv[ is a rough classification based on affluence, degree of industrialization,
productivity
First world
- However, it has been a consumptive society
- Have big natural resource base and consume more
- Becoming more efficient in using energy
Second world
- But huge environmental degradation has occurred
Third world
- Lack the political will or environmental infrastructures
- }v[ZÀZu}vÇ}}v[}(]ÆZ}ou]vZvÀ]}vuv
Demography
- The study of populations, and causes for changes in population size and its distribution
- *demographic transitions
- High birth and death rates
o A lot of infant mortality
- Transitional
o Death rate getting lower because technology and sanitary improved
- Lower birth rate along with lower death rate
o Knowing that their children will survive better, people have less children
- Post-industrial stage
Demographic transition stage 4
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