what are 2 aspects of doing science?
-come up with a hypothesis(question you can test)
-prove or disprove the hypothesis
what was the “cosmic hypothesis” and why did geophysicists give it up?
-because they disproved it was wrong(magnetic field should decrease was disproved)
-geodynamo seemed to be the correct hypothesis
1st of the 5controversies:
-minerals related to mystical and magical powers (used often as lucky charms to ward
off evil spirits)
end of the middle ages(renonsonse)
-universities were founded
-1000yrs ago (1088 bologna,paris)
time when universities were NOT linked t church. Independent of church and state
could buy a book...key was that it was(easy to reproduce the book)
-stuffed animal kingdom,mineral cabinets,herbarium(3 kingdoms of nature)
The person of the renonsense
Leonardo da vinici---produced mona lisa
-not so much art available but more than 50000 sheets of his thoughts
-notebook was written backwards(possibly left handed, or just brilliant)
-interested in canals, drying of marshes, argues that...
-fascinated with nature...paintings are like a photography (good at observing).
the ideas were never disseminated, thoughts were not of benefit to others “isolated....
-worked in the places listed below
-harz and erz (most advanced mining area in europe..rich oars) as a consequence min-
ing communities had power
-these towns proud of their heritage
-publish ed de re metallica(about mining...no one else disgusted medicine with the geol-
ogy aspect of mining)
-the book has magnificent engravings
-He talks about the origins of rocks...he noted....
“quote” as a scientist if you reply on someone else's you need to give that reference to
that person without checking it.
-he also talks about classification of minerals (minerals had magical powers but now
he looked at physical properties)
Formation of Rocks
-rocks, minerals had magical powers
-printing, universities, collections( new ways to deseminate information)
Da vinici 1500’s
-good observations, but isolated (ideas were not semminated)
-mining in Germany
-book “de re metallica” 1555 review (rocks form in layers, classified minerals by their
aside: modern view
A. classification of minerals(based on their chemistry) and properties(a mixed approach)
-eg of same chemical
diamond and graphite
(properties to differentiate between minerals and classify them)
classification of rocks
-not just asking what is in the rock but also HOW its form
leads us to classify by igneous rocks, sedimentary rock(formed by erosion)(they make
fossil and structures that tells about the environment they were formed.
metamorphic rocks(formed under high pressure)
ALL ROCKS ARE distinct in the ways they form!
Rocks are formed and destroyed at a slow pace we dot see but it happens.
formation and transformation happens in certain envio..
each of these rock types tells us about environment.
2 books “recepte veritable” descours admirable”
-talks about origins of springs
-THE first who used experiment/related experiment to what he had observed in nature
“quote”(listen to crystal recorder)