EUR200Y1 Lecture Notes - Bourgeoisie, Philosophes

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14 Nov 2012
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11/14/2012 2:40:00 PM
- French Revolution created the seed of modern nationalism
1788-Europe sea of empires-The Great Powers-many states that are already
formed, many unformed nations
French society was a pyramid prior to the revolution
Pyramidical society’s essence-all relationships are vertical-top down
Modern example-North Korea
Estates
1) Clergy-one of largest land owners-influential-0.5% of France (130K
population) monolithic group
2) Nobility-400K pop with some crossover with clergy-1.5% of France-
monolithic group
3) Third Estate-everyone else-98%-peasants-80%-no serfdom in France at
this time (serfdom form of slavery-can’t move-landlord controls your life)-
40% are landless-pay honourous dues to Church; bourgeoisie-largely urban-
artisans, shop owners, other 18% workers-Marxist interpretation-revolution
was bourgeoisie inspired
Pyramid-top-King-Versailles-no concept in power in the nation-oppressive
Relationship highly exploitative
Problems pre-1789
Discontent with the king-some nobility and bourgeoisie
Crop drought and famine
France’s negative role in the US Revolution
Tax system-nobility paid no tax
Enightenment-role-French salon culture sponsored by nobility-group of
philosophes turning pyramid upside down
Pillars of the Enlightenment-primacy of reason; individual freedom for
men; civic and legal equality (broad notion); Rule of law-pivotal to make a
state-your voice is the same as everyone else in court; individual rights
Sovereignty power starts to move from the king to the nation
General crisis in the absolutist system-pyramidization
1789-constitutional monarchy-lasts until 1792-within that period there
was also a constitutional revolution-limits role of monarch
1789 does not topple the king
hostility to the church
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