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Lecture 3

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European Studies
Robert Austin

EUR200Y1 Lecture 3 The French Revolution – most significant revolution 1792-1815 - world is totally transformed by French evolutionary wars - the most significant thing to come out of the wars was the French system of government (modern nationalism) France 1788 -many states that are already formed, many unformed states, many unformed nations -political revolution based in France -industrial revolution, roots in Great Britain -French society is a pyramid, key component of pyramidal society is all relationships are vertical, absence of horizontal relationships Estate system: 1) Clergy – one of the biggest land owners, religious power: 130,000 people 0.5% 2) Nobility – royal class: 400,000 people 1.5% 3) Peasants – 80% (40% are landless) Bourgeoisie – middle class -No concept of power in the nation -Before 1789 there is discontent with the King because France in a financial collapse, the taxation system, the role of the enlightenment -French Salon culture (sponsored by nobility) philosophes are the people in the Salon culture King – Versailles ∆ (king is at the top of pyramid system) Pilars of Enlightenment: -primacy of reason -individual freedom for men -civic & legal equality (rule of law) -power is moving from the kind to the people -sovereig
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