Jan 27 lecture

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15 Feb 2011
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Lecture 3 1/27/11 Greek Architectural Sculpture
Includes sculptures in the pediment; friezes; cult statue/image; acroteria
The selection of the themes for mythological sculptures was determined by the
patron deity of the temple, local history and myth, as well as interests of the city
who commissioned the temple. Sculpture was understood as a precious ornament
that was meant to delight the deity as whose house the temple functioned
Architectural sculpture was found in other types of architecture, and was painted.
Heroon at Lefkandi, 10th century BC shrine for heroized individual who is honored
with a cult after death
2 most prominent burials were located under the floor
Horse burial shows the elevated status of the dead
Burial place of elevated member of society
Permanent temples, i.e. houses for the gods, were only built in the geometric period.
Before that, worship of the gods took place in the open air, in sanctuaries with altars
These terracotta models probably reproduce early temples because they served as
votive gifts in Greek sanctuaries
Drawing of a clay model of a house or shrine, Perachora, 8th c. BC
Geometric décor does not reproduce the actual appearance of the building, but
follows the
Dreros, Cree: Reconstruction of shrine and Apollo cult figure, late 8th c. BC
Sanctuary had a bench to hold cult figures
Dreros, Cult statuettes, 700 BC, probably stood on bench of the shrine bronze
plates over wooden core
Samos, reconstruction of the first temple of Hera, 8th c. BC.
Oikos elongated plan of a single room
Central row of columns to obscure the view of the cult statue
Wooden architecture was eventually turned into stone
Reconstructions of the wooden entablature of early Greek temples, 7th c. BC
Seems to have become more elaborate
Egyptian influence of monumental stone architecture must have played a crucial
role in this transition from wooden to monumental stone architecture
Cultural exchange with the Egyptians and Near East
Temple of Hera, Olympia, 590 BC
Early Doric temples appear heavy and sturdy in spite of their elongated plans
Central row of columns have been given up, instead 2 rows and can now see cult
Temple of Artemis, Corfu, 580 BC
Pseudo dipteral broad space between cella walls and columns, much wider than
before (in order to have another row of columns, but were left out)
Pedimental sculpture with Gorgo Medusa
The decoration of the pediment attempts to harness the power of Medusa, who was
believed to have apotropaic powers. The animals who flank her are related to
Harness the power of Medusa, and a means of warding off evil
Preparing themselves to face the unknown
Ionic order 6th-7th century. Doric is mostly in mainland Greece, while Ionic is mostly
on the Greek islands and Asia Minor
Temple of Hera and sanctuary, Samos, 560 BC
Much larger temples in 6th century, kings competing with one another and increase
their prestige
Rows of columns are doubled on the side (dipterous) and tripled on the front and
Temple of Artemis, Ephesos, 560 BC
Larger and richer details