FAH248H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Nicolas Poussin, Antoine Plamondon, Marguerite Bourgeoys

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28 Feb 2018
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FAH248H1 Canadian Painting
Lecture 3: Tuesday January 23rd
Colonial Period, 1665-1867
- Anonymous, Micmac Indians, ca. 1850
Painting of Maritime province aboriginals.
1535: France established the colony of Canada at Stadacona (later Quebec City)
1713: Treaty of Utrecht: Britain assumes control of mainland Nova Scotia
: Cessation of Seven Years’ War: Canada and most of New France came under
British rule; the Royal Proclamation of 1763 establishes First Nation treaty rights,
creates the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexes Cape Breton Island
to Nova Scotia
1783: Treaty of Paris, recognizing the independence of the newly formed United
States, and cedes British North American territories south of the Great Lakes
1791: Constitutional Act, divides the province of Canada into French speaking lower
Canada (Quebec) granting each its own elected legislative assembly
War of 1812
1867: the Consitition Act officially proclaims Canadian Confederation on July 1,
1867, initially including four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New
Brunswick
1919: Canada joins League of Nations independently of Britain
: Statue of Westminster affirms Canada’s independence, save for the ability to
amend its constitution
1982: Canada Act: patriation of Canada’s constitution from the United Kingdom,
concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Painting in New France, 1663-1759
- Anonymous, La France apportant la foi aux Hurons de la Nouvelle-France, c.1670
Painting is in a classical baroque style, not a masterfully executed painting but
contains complexity both visually and allegorically. It’s a Huron man pledging
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allegiance to a anthropogenic representation of France. How do we make sense of a
painting commissioned by the colonized population, at the center of the colonial
forces? The Hurons were under the protection of the French, and relocated them to
around Quebec city for the survival of their population.
- Louis Nicolas, Man of the Outaouak Nation, c. 1674-1680. From the Codex
Canadiensis
- Frere Luc (Claude Francois), L’Assomption, , L’Eglise de Notre-Dame-des-
Anges, l’Hopital general de Quebec
This was a period of devotional painting. Lots of baroque style painting, as was
popular in France. Frere Luc did original paintings like the above, and its suspected
he did many others like La France apportant, but the details are sketchy. One issue is
the question of he was able to complete so many large scale paintings in the single
year he was in France.
- Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia ego, ca. 1638-40
- Pierre Le Ber, Marguerite Bourgeoys, 1700
This is the only work officially attributed to Pierre Le Bar, though his studio makes
historians suspect he had so many others. During the restoration of this painting, it
was shown to be painted over twice, possibly in establishing its creation to another
popular name in painting. It was overpainted because the style was not so pleasing,
and another artist was called in to make something more pleasing. A very forceful
painting style.
- Francois Malepart de Beaucourt, Portrait of a Haitian woman, 1786
- , Madame Eustach-Ignace Trottier, 1793
These two examples of Rococo portraiture show these two figures in different lights.
The former ws clearly more technically successful, though forced.
- Unknown Artist, A drowning at Lévis, 1754
This was a kind of painting commissioned to fulfill a vow, an Ex voto painting. There
were by marginalized people, who may have been saved from tragedy and painted
images of their saviors gods, saints in return.
- Thomas Davies, A View of the Lower Part of the Falls of St. Anne near Quebec, 1790
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