Lecture 2: Forest Ownership: Forests as Capital

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13 Jan 2011
Lecture 2: Forest Ownership: Forests as Capital
Global Forest Ownership
·diversity of human experiences with forests throughout the globe
otypes of forests
oexpanding (afforestation), or contracting (deforestation) forests
orural/urban divide
oprimary uses of timber
oecosystem services (ES)
·origins of forest ownership
oancient times-no formal ownership but use rights
orecent times-global forests almost exclusively owned by the state
oW. Euro-feudalism, with forest management the responsibility of the nearest manor house
§foresters worked for lords to promote certain values: game, fuel, forest products
§model exported globally via colonialism
·colonizers took forest away from the natives who depended directly on
oas gov'ts shifted to the modern nation-state system, rights shifted from the crown to the
§exceptions rare (i.e. Scandinavia, Mexico, China)
·reforms have occurred since late 1980s cause:
oawareness of discrimination against forest dependent indigenous (60 million=~1% of
global pop.), move towards justice
oconvergence betw. environmental & eco development agendas, esp towards poverty
orecognition that states have not been very good stewards of forests (corruption, illegal
logging, apathy), move towards efficiency
§being able to precisely describe patterns of forest ownership is essential for
gov'ts, lobby groups, indigenous ppls, researchers, etc ...
·property vs. property rights
oproperty, not merely a physical object (land) but the right to benefit stream (a right that is
only as secure as the duty of others to respect the conditions that protect the stream), if
not duty associated then privilege
owho owns what, what ownership means
§ ownership best thought not in a simple sense, ex. Heather owns a bike, but more
like a "bundle-of-sticks," ex. Heather as the right to pedal, steer, inflate the tires,
& brake this bike
·allows nuance in describing ownership systems, es. Heather has the
right to drive this bike, but not the right to keep Peter from using it
when she's not there
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