Lecture 5: Non-Timber Forest Products & Non-Market Valuation

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Published on 13 Jan 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Forestry
Course
FOR303H1
Professor
Lecture 5: Non-Timber Forest Products & Non-Market Valuation
Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs):
·NTFPs: not timber, but product, benefit, service that comes from a forest/tree & is of use to
humans
oFAO definition: non-timber forest products consist of goods of bio. origin other than
wood, derived from forests, other wooded land & tree outside forests
§ex. berries, Christmas trees, antlers, carbon credits, etc ...
·large # of products generated by forests, but history of forestry direct @ timber usu. cause:
osome NTFPs have been either replaced by synthetics, ex. rubber, gum, or domesticated
into plantations, ex. oil palm, cocoa
oindigenous ppl more dependent on NTFPs then timber for subsistence, had been
marginalized
·sudden interest in NTFPs cause they mean
oincome generation for rural development
oincreased equity in distri. of forest benefits
odecentralization of forest management
oprotection from climate chance
·NTFP categories:
ofood, ex. nuts, honey, mushrooms
ohealth, ex. drugs, herbal remedies
omanufacturing, ex. specialty woods, resins, fragrances
olandscaping, ex. trees, shrubs, wildflowers
odecorative, ex. craft products, carvings, natural dyes
oenvironmental goods & services, ex. bio-fuels, bio. pesticides, carbon credits
·NTFPs for development
osome suggest potential income from NTFPs could be higher & more sustainable than
timber for indigenous ppl
o"conservation by commercialization" hypothesis
§ecological (NTFPs maintain forest-like structure)
§increased organization of markets eliminates middle-men, & improves
livelihoods
·problems with NTFPs
oextraction can damage trees
§ex. bark removal, fruit harvesting
osome species better able to sustain continuous off-take than others
§ex. abundant regenerators
oincreased competition in forest betw. humans vs. humans, & humans vs. animals
olarger markets lead to higher income lead to greater imports of competing products, so
leads to a shift to the highest value of NTFPs which brings risk of unsustainability
osustainability compromised by lack of regulation
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§ex. mushrooms in BC, yew in ON/QC
ohealth concerns rise 'bout new health, body care products which are untested
osocial inequity, harvesters often paid low prices dependent on middlemen to transport
crop to cities with the high risk of spoilage
oconflict, often frontier resources (near the border)
obiopiracy:
§bio theft, illegal collection of indigenous plants by corps. who patent them for
their own use
· by major firms of potentially valuable genetic material/species
·can trad. knowledge be patented
oex. of neem tree in India
§prompted widespread development of trad.
knowledge protection (mostly NTFPs) throughout the
tropics
oeffect on forest composition, can shift preference of species in forest to one with high-
value NTFPs, ex. Sugar Maples in QC displacing Beech & Hemlock trees
·conclusion
oNTFPs an essential area of study, can be more valuable then timber
§but not a solution to international development problems, infact can create
unique new problems
·incl. bio-piracy, eco. disruption, & "frontier" style conflict
orequire new legislative & policy solutions
§"bundle-of-sticks"
Valuing Non-Market Forest Outputs: Decisions with No Market Values
·non-market forest outputs: goods & services that can't be sold in the market, aka unpriced units
oex. scenic beauty, watershed values, biodiversity, habitat
·4 types of non-market value:
o1) use value: pleasure you get from utilizing it, ex. days @ campsite
o2) option value: consumers WTP for option to use resource in the future, even if they
don't use it now, ex. Algonquin prov. park
o3) existence value: consumers WTP for assurance that somethings exists, even though
they'll probably never use/consume it, ex. protecting the rain forest
o4) bequest value: consumers WTP for opp. to transfer resources to future generations
·reasons to put prices on somethings that can't be priced:
omarket fails to provide these benefits
§few private incentives to produce output
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