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Lecture 11

FOR201H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Easter Island, Swot Analysis, Ecotourism


Department
Forestry
Course Code
FOR201H1
Professor
Sean Thomas
Lecture
11

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FOR210H1: Lecture 11 - People, Tropical Forests, and Conservation Strategies. March
30th, 2017
Forests and People - Overview:
About 1.6 billion people (20% of the population) rely on forest resources for a major part
of their livelihoods.
“Forest-dependent people”.
Inputs of forests to human livelihoods include fuelwood, building materials, wild foods,
medicinal plants, and forest use for agriculture and grazing.
Most forests worldwide are state-owned and states commonly have come to own these
forests through historical processes of exclusion, takeover of the ‘commons’, and denial
of local rights.
Traditional and Non-traditional Forest Dwellers:
Hunger-gatherers: rely on harvesting wild foods.
Non-sedentary, span large areas.
Swidden agriculturalists: stay in one area until soil resources are depleted.
Majority of forest people.
Pastoralists: rely on grazing animals as focus for subsistence.
Migratory.
Recent rural migrants: many other people move into forest areas for economic
opportunity and often establish permanent settlements.
People who are displaced due to conflict
Hunter-gatherers:
Gather wild foods for most of their diet.
Modern hunter-gatherers mostly subsidize food from agricultural sources, especially for
starchy staples.
Universal subsistence was the mode of our species until the last 20,000 years.
Important groups include pygmies (Mbuti, etc.) in Africa, Penan in Borneo, some
Amerindians.
Do not generally have traditional permanent settlements.
Swidden Agriculture:
Shifting cultivation: is defined as a continuous system of cultivation in which temporary
fields are cleared and subsequently cropped for fewer years than they are in a fallow
period.
Forest is cleared for small-scale agriculture, move to new areas every few years.
Fallow period restores soil fertility, provides weed control, and provides a variety
of plant resources.
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Sustainable under low population densities.
Population pressure, market economies, can result in large-scale degradation through
swiddens.
Common crops include cassava, maize, bananas, potatoes etc.
Swidden agriculture sometimes called “slash-and-burn” or “shifting” agriculture.
By far the most common method of traditional forest-dwelling people.
Can be considered a form of agroforestry as crops are combined in time rather than
space.
Pastoralists:
Rely on grazing animals as centers of subsistence culture.
Generally nomadic, traditionally covering large distances.
Many associated with savanna and dry forest habitats.
Cattle and other animals are often moved through forests.
Recent Forest Migrants:
Displaced peoples commonly seek subsistence and/or economic opportunities in forests.
Economic developments including agricultural conversion, forest resource extraction,
and mining often provide employment opportunities.
Large potential for conflict with traditional inhabitants, particularly when claims are made
to traditional lands.
Who Owns the World’s Forests?:
77-86% of the world’s forests are owned by nation states.
Ownership and management by communities is on the rise.
The ownership is rooted in colonial processes (‘right of conquest’).
Ownership is often contested as nations gain independence.
The existing regimes of rights and tenure form the substrate on which global regimes are
overlaid (for example REDD+ or siting of National Parks and Sanctuaries).
Forest tenure: is formal ownership and control of resources.
Changes in Global Forest Tenure:
Since the late 1980’s, many governments of major forested countries reformed forest
ownership policies in response to:
Concerns about local rights.
Convergence of economic development and conservation agenda (security of
rights critical for investment in conservation).
Evidence that communities can be good stewards.
Recognition that centralized management hasn’t been very effective.
Figure 1: Forest Tenure Distribution, 2008.
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