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Lecture 2: Forest Ownership: Forests as Capital

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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 2: Forest Ownership: Forests as Capital Global Forest Ownership diversity of human experiences with forests throughout the globe o types of forests o expanding (afforestation), or contracting (deforestation) forests o ruralurban divide o primary uses of timber o ecosystem services (ES) origins of forest ownership o ancient times-no formal ownership but use rights o recent times-global forests almost exclusively owned by the state o W. Euro-feudalism, with forest management the responsibility of the nearest manor house foresters worked for lords to promote certain values: game, fuel, forest products model exported globally via colonialism colonizers took forest away from the natives who depended directly on forests o as govts shifted to the modern nation-state system, rights shifted from the crown to the state exceptions rare (i.e. Scandinavia, Mexico, China) reforms have occurred since late 1980s cause: o awareness of discrimination against forest dependent indigenous (60 million=~1% of global pop.), move towards justice o convergence betw. environmental & eco development agendas, esp towards poverty o recognition that states have not been very good stewards of forests (corruption, illegal logging, apathy), move towards efficiency being able to precisely describe patterns of forest ownership is essential for govts, lobby groups, indigenous ppls, researchers, etc ... property vs. property rights o property, not merely a physical object (land) but the right to benefit stream (a right that is only as secure as the duty of others to respect the conditions that protect the stream), if not duty associated then privilege o who owns what, what ownership means ownership best thought not in a simple sense, ex. Heather owns a bike, but more like a bundle-of-sticks, ex. Heather as the right to pedal, steer, inflate the tires, & brake this bike allows nuance in describing ownership systems, es. Heather has the right to drive this bike, but not the right to keep Peter from using it when shes not there
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