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Lecture 3

FOR400Y1 Lecture 3: FOR400Y - Lecture 3- Forest Harvesting, Silviculture and Management Planning (Ben Kuttner)

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Ning Yan

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FOR400Y - Lecture 3: Forest Harvesting, Silviculture and Management Planning (Ben
Certification of Professional Foresters
- If graduate from accredited forestry degree in university, just need examination to
become certified
- Canadian Forestry Accreditation Board are people that set the standards
- CFAB now offers accredited online courses for universities that don’t have them for
- Leadership
- Professional foresters need critical reasoning skills
- Need communication of complex ideas
- Provide advice to range of clients
- Information Acquisition and Analysis
- How we verify
- Inventorying resources
- Professionalism and Ethics
- Need to abide by code of ethics
Forests Defined
- Need to have definitions
- Forest characterized in different ways
- Ecosystem, extensive tree cover + other things growing
- Different from managed forest = area managed for production of timber and other
forest produce
- Stand: Community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age,
arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on
adjoining areas thus forming a silvicultural or management entity
Boreal Forest Stands
- From air easy to delineate different species
- Can see trembling aspens
- = tool for inventorying
- Further north mostly spruce trees
Forest Harvesting
- Removal of produce from the forest for utilization
- Art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality
of forests and woodlands
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- The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands
Important Distinctions
- Silviculture on its own is not forest management
- Actions taken at the level of individual stands
- Silvicultural ground rules
- Enforced when harvesting on ground lands
- Audit forests to make sure harvesting is sustainable
- After fire, get pulse of regeneration of jack pine
- Commercial thinning
- Was big movement to plant red pine
- Now forests have matured so available for harvest
- Can clean out trees with diseases
- Prescribed burns
- Tools for silvicultural treatments
- Need to prepare seedbed, alter soil pH
The HIstory of Canadian Silviculture
- Earlier part of century = trying to restore farmland
- Replanting old pastures (cf. red pines)
- Usually following logging, don’t do anything because forest will come back
- Between 1970 and 1980 emphasis on quality planting and expanding use of herbicides
- If inherit forest, inherit its history too
- 80s to 90s, planting spiked
- But realized there were other alternative ways of bringing forests back
- Planting slow down but more invested in certain areas
- Also more tending involved
Modern Canadian Silviculture
- Trying new things:
- Hybrids (maintaining genetic diversity)
- Thinning, pruning, tree improvement
- Need to understand silvics of trees
- Alternative silvicultural systems:
- Clearcutting in Ontario: Clearcuts different from those from early 2000s
- People challenge view that we should clear-cut everything
- Disturbances like fire might have varying intensities, sizes
Ontario Forest HIstory
- Most forest changes occurred in past 2 centuries
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