FCS195 – Lecture 9 11-11-20 8:08 PM
Paris by night – Music and the expatriates
Black Paris – 1930s
Black Paris = period of immigration with an African-American presence
Law in the USA was not favourable for Blacks and they came to France
because they were more accepted.
During WW1 the USA sent troops over and some soldiers did not want to
go back home after they experienced life in France.
Although discrimination still existed in Paris, they were not persecuted as
Bricktop (Ada Smith) and Augusta Savage were artists that went to Paris to
practice their art.
African-Americans were viewed as exotic by the French.
She was an African-American woman.
Born in USA and went to Paris to continue her career.
Plaid with the idea of primitively and jungle themes.
She wore a “banana skirt” to play on the ideas of how people viewed Blacks
She sang in English and French.
Expatriates: African-American people who decided to stay in Paris.
In her song “J’ai deux amours” (I have two lovers), she speaks about how
she loves Paris and her country (The USA). this was meaningful to the
expatriate community at the time. Jazz and France
Jazz was coming to France
The great migration Southern African-Americans migrated North from the
Southern USA and became artists. they created a new African-American
This led to the “New Negro Renaissance” and the “Harlem Renaissance”
When Jazz came to Europe:
• Unease because it was foreign
• Attractive because it was foreign and exotic
Jazz was very criticized as being “wild” and “untamed” and, depending on
the critic, it was either viewed as positive and negative.
When the French create their jazz, it will not be primitive. Instead it will be
“tame”, “rational” and “civilized”
this led to “white jazz”, “symphonic jazz” and “straight jazz”
They thought that because they liked it, it had to be French and they
found some French connection and linked it to Louisiana (because there
were French populations there)
• Very well-known guitarist
• He is a gypsy who tried to famous by playing in bars
• Suffered injuries and learned to play guitar with 3 fingers on one of
• He eventually joins the “hot club” and plays “hot jazz” which was
considered to be Black jazz and “untamed”.
Manouche = a group of gypsies that plaid Jazz Daphne
• La quintette du Hot Club de France (1938)
• The icon of being French in the 40s and the 50s
• Sang a lot of sad songs
• Takes pictures of Paris nightlife and publishes a book
o The book seeks to contrast the different meanings of
“nightlife” for rich and poor
The working class people are sometimes still working
• Takes pictures of low and high class to show the different nightlife
• The “eye of Paris”
• Took pictures that were considered “weird”
o Duchesse de Zoé au bal des invertis shows a man at a drag
o Took pictures of prostitutes
o Took pictures of people living in the street
Amazons of the left Bank
Expatriates in Paris = interwar period