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Lecture 7

JGI216H Lecture 7.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Geography and Planning

JGI216H Lecture7 New International Division of LabourVideo Recap3 Cities Within Toronto on book handout she gave usDavid Hulchanski authorHigh middle low income neighbourhoodsFound a long term trend 2 points in timeIts a map of how they are trending over 35 years1991 censusnowcity140 increasing in income and social status o neighbourhoods who experience 20 of income increase between 19702005city320 decreasing in income and social status o neighbourhoods experience decrease in 20 or more in income o focus attention on this city o because it occupies 40 of neighbourhoods in Toronto o 66 of this city pop is visible minorities o after 1965a lot of immigrants coming from nontraditional source countries Africa Latin America etc 8090 are visible minorities in recent years really still concentrated esp in Downtowncity2 Declining middle incomeo increasedecrease in less than 20 maintained income levelchanges in the economy o affordable housing1990s no more assisted social housingfed gov 1993 ended it o labour market1950s1970sone good job was enough to support a fam o cuts in social supportsunemployment insurance used to cover people better in past o discriminationcity335 whitecity180 white peopledisappearing middle class o 200529 of the city is middle income 13 of total citylow income neighbourhoods o 200553 of to neighbourhoods are low income nowTorontolow income growing huge and high income getting higher more inequality o We should be building the middle income society o Obviously inequality is not good for societySocial strategiesMore equal society means we are all in it together things geared for the majority ie house pricesHigh income people drive up land valueshouse prices for everybody o New style of sociospatial polarization in the neoliberal global era city o Neighbourhoods are increasingly segregated by MARKET FORCES and GOVERNMENT POLICIES
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