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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Michael Bunce

Migration The Mobile World Questions •When and why did people start moving around the world? •What have been the main patterns and factors of migration •How does migration relate to the geography of globalization? 1. Early Migrations Features and factors in early human migrations •Over long periods, small numbers •Population growth •The search for resources •Technological superiority •Territorial expansion, conquest, invasion and succession 2. Modern migration: factors in decision to migrate Push-Pull model: •Push factors –Economic: poverty, unemployment –Social: population pressure, class and community conflict, lack of social mobility –Political: repression, discrimination, genocide,war. –Environmental: resource depletion, natural disasters, disease. •Pull factors: –Economic: jobs, income and prospects –Social: social mobility, modern lifestyle, networks, family survival strategy, remittances, family reunion. –Political: democracy, human rights, immigration programmes. –Environmental: land, better living conditions. Aging, low population growth regions attract people from young, high growth regions. 3. Types of migration •Short-distance: mainly rural to urban. •Long distance: inter-regional and international But also different contexts: •Voluntary – people choosing to migrate •Forced: slavery, refugees •Temporary: “guest” or migrant workers – Rachel Ginsburg‟s talk about migrant farm workers in Ontario is a good example of this. Migration in rise of industrial capitalism •Colonialism and diasporas settler and plantation model, e.g. European settlers in the Americas which also involved the African slave diaspora to provide labour for the plantation system. Diaspora refers to the movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland" or "people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location", or "people settled far from their ancestral homelands". The word has come to refer to historical mass-dispersions of people with common roots, parti
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