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Lecture 5

GGRA03 Lecture 5.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Andrew Kaufman

GGRA03 Lecture 5 07.02.12 Midterm Exam - Short answers - Do all the readings - Covering lecture 2, 3 4, 5, - 1 hour What are the big urban environmental issues today? - Rapid urbanization o The urban crisis has shifted to poor countries o Growth of people living in cities in places where there is very little capacity to provide services such as water supply, waste management, education - Massive growth of poverty inequality, slums o In the past we saw this with European cities o Poverty  Deforestation in Africa, and killing of wild animals for bush meat. • People need it to survive, thus it is becoming an environmental issue  We need technology  Spread of toxic waste is directly related to poverty • Plastic blowing everywhere in India o Every 50meters there is street cleaners, they will burn piles of plastic - Issues of global sustainability o The patterns of urbanization today that is radically unsustainable and are becoming a huge issue for the climate in the future - Issues of global warming - Increasing environmental risks - Challenges of urban governance - Questions about urban resilience: creating cities and communities that can withstand shocks o Economic o Environmental  Earthquakes, floods o Political o Cities can be based where life can be sustained in the design of a disaster - Fostering equity, sustainability o Over the last 50 years we have an increasing polarization  Vast increasing in wealth  Increasing number of desperate people living on $2 Urbanization - Urbanization patterns of the next 40 years will be critical to the long-run sustainability and liveability of the planet - World urban population is projected to growth by just over 3 billion from 3.29 billion in 2007 to 6.4billlion in 2050 1 GGRA03 Lecture 5 07.02.12 o Most countries by 2050 will be  75% urban Developed countries 80% urban - 93% of that growth will be in developing countries o Demographic projections are reliable  All the women having babies in 2030 and 2040 are already born, so you already know how many women there will be. It is possible to predict population numbers  Fertility rates are dropping and now it is expected the world population will peak out at 9 or 10 billion  The projections are the same thing with urbanization reliable • We have had a very steady curve but now it is increasing. Eventually the dramatic urban growth and expansion will be finished - All of that growth will be in cities, as total rural population is expected to decline - By 2050 the urban transition will be largely completed – 70% of the global population will live in cities and the period of greatest urban growth and development will be finished o Cities for another 3 billion people will be built World Population Development - After 1950, this was the turning point in terms of expansion due to demographic transition occurring o The death rate dropped but the birth rate stayed high due to medicine - Latin America urbanized faster than Africa  There urban transition and demographic transition is almost complete - Africa and Asia are having rapid urbanization still o By 2050 this will be largely completed What will we build in this period? - The next 40 years therefore present a crucial opportunity: o Either to create more sustainable, healthy, liveable urban areas o Or to dig ourselves ever further into the wasteful, unsustainable, unjust and unhealthy patterns of urban development that have dominated in recent decades - Basic patterns of urban form, once established, become increasingly difficulty and more costly to alter later on o Once built, it is long lasting, Especially patterns of land ownership, housing, and distribution of public spaces Urban Infrastructure - The experience of western cities in industrial revolution was that it takes major infrastructure investments to make good city environments - Waste supply - Waste management - Transport system - Also regulation of private development, investments in schools, parks, protected green spaces, pollution controls, libraries, clinics, community 2 GGRA03 Lecture 5 07.02.12 centers, police, public health regulations, and doctors, social housing, energy systems o Public health doctors  vaccines o Energy systems that are clean and affordable o All these things are necessary to have healthy liveable cities - All are necessary for healthy cities o Green Agenda  toxic chemical that need to be removed properly  In Latin America and Asia everything has happened really fast, the industrial pollution load is heavy without pollution regulations in a compressed period of time - These take time to develop, require good government, resources, social stability, civil society, social capital o Civil society  groups of citizens to decide to solve a problem o Social capital  groups and networks to implement solutions - North versus South Industrialization o South compressed time where everything is happening rapidly, the rapid urban growth makes is difficult no environmental issues  Poverty and war make it difficult because you do not have a civil society Cities of the Poor - Slums are no longer just a small part of urban population in major industrial cities - The majority of urban residents in developing countries live in slums, without clean water, toilets, jobs, housing, schools - 1/3 of global urban residents, 1 billion people live in slums - Often live in informal settlements built on land others do not want o Besides garbage dumps o In floodplains o On steep slopes  No one has bui
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