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Canada (510,817)
Geography (975)
GGR100H1 (141)
Lecture

The Rise of the Industrial city Jan 15th/14

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR100H1
Professor
Robert Lewis
Semester
Spring

Description
The  Rise  of  the  Industrial  city                          Wed  Jan  15   2014   th By  the  end  of  the  19  ce  a  capitalist  urban  society  centered  on  industrial  relations   and  driven  by  the  manufacture  of  commodities  was  firmly  in  place  in  Canada  and   USA.  How  did  this  come  about?   How  could  a  complex  come  about?  Youngstown,  is  huge,  gigantic,  consumes  huge   amounts  of  resources.   • In  1800  things  like  this  didn’t  exist,  by  1900  people  who  controlled  these   large  complexes  controlled  the  world   Structure   • Capitalist  industrialization  and  industrial  change…new  political  economy   • Capitalist  industrialization  and  urban  change…new  urban  society   New  political  economy  1   • New  technologies  and  economic  sectors   • New  technologies  power,  process,  and  product  and  industrial  sectors   (textiles.  Machine  tools,  steel,  chemical)  drive  and  shape  the  character  of   capital  accumulation   o Jonestown.   § Huge  steel  mill  included  in  the  city   § There  is  a  working  class  district   § The  whole  geography  of  the  city  is  developed  through  the   industry   • We  get  new  machinery   o Sewing  machines,  typewritters  etc.  machines  that  transform  the   world   • New  industrial  processes   o Balkanization  –  a  process  by  which  somebody  creates  rubber.   Rubber  became  one  of  the  key  products  of  the  19  ce   o Created  steel  at  a  low  price   • New  economic  sectors   o Iron  becomes  steel   o Texteiles,  tools,   o Industries  that  did  not  exist  before  1840  become  the  key  motives   of  the  new  world   New  political  economy  2   • To  make  all  this  possible  you  need  finance   • You  can’t  make  the  steel  into  the  skyscrapers  unless  money  flows    from   one  place  to  another   • Before  the  1820s  a  place  called  a  financial  secter  did  not  exist,  but  by   1820s  places  such  as  wall  street  are  beginning  to  emerge  as  centres  as   financial  industry  which  are  lubricating  industrial  growth   • In  Canada  montreal  becomes  the  key  financial  sector,  by  1930s  Toronto   took  over   New  Political  economy  3   • Agricultural  change   Made  into  an  industrial  activity  (see  chart  on  slides)   Due  to  cities  that  are  growing,  how  do  you  feed  a  million  people   population  who  don’t  know  how  to  grow  their  own  food   The  development  of  a  large  scale  argricultural  system  that  is  able   to  provide  food  for  a  growing  mass   Increase  in  agricultural  productivity    through  colonization  of   prime  land  (prairies),  improve  tools  (irrigation,  tractors,  etc.)   improved  farming  techniques.   New  political  econonmy  4   • New  forms  of  transportation  and  communication   o 200  years  ago  the  world  was  a  slow  small  place   o industrial  capitalism  calls  out  the  need  for  increased  mobility,   increased  networks  of  communication   § industrial  capitalism  needs  the  flow  of  materials,  ideas,  and   capital  in  order  to  work   o these  reduce  the  cost  and  time  of  movement  and  information,  and   revolutionize  urban  relations.   New  Political  economy  5   • Communication  technologies   o Railways  and  telegraph   § The  railways  in  1890  are  condensed  in  the  north  east  part   of  usa     § These  are  the  industrial  heartland  of  America,  and  the   world   § The  railroads  starting  in  the  1820s  and  30s  are  the  key   transportation  technologies  that  connect  the  usa  to   eachother  and  the  rest  of  the  world  (through  ports)   § Some  historians  argue  that  the  telegraph  was  more   revolutionary  than  the  computer   § For  the  first  time  in  human  history  humans  can   communicate  instantly,  and  ther  first  form  of   communication  that  can  go  across  the  ocean   § Effect  of  these  technologies  is  time-­‐compresssion  that  is   technology  annihilates  space  through  time  (david  Harvey)   ú They  reduce  the  time  it  takes  to  cover  space   New  political  economy  6   • Capital  investment  and  accumulation   o Capital  shifts  into  new  fields  (manufacturing,  finance,  transpo,etc)   o Into  new  institutions  such  as  the  factory  ,  railroads,  banks   o New  sets  of  actors  such  as  “worker”  –  a  person  who  works  in  the   factory   § A  banker,  a  scientist,  an  engineer,  a  planner   ú All  these  facilitate  industry  and  the  movement  of   capital   New  political  economy  7   • Consumption   o Decline  of  household  as  producer   o Broadening  of  the  national  market   o New  institutions  of  consumption   § Supply  and  demand   § Emergence  of  the  consumer  society  in  the  1900s   § More  and  more  people  are  now  buying  commodities  rather   than  making  them     § Prior  to  1850s  most  people  consumed  what  they  made,   women  made  the  clothes  for  the  family,  men  and  women   worked  in  the  fields  to  grow  food   New  political  economy  8   • Transformation  of  work   • Wage  labor  and  machinery  are  generalized  
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