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Population Geography- Oct 2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Leydon

Population Geography October 2, 2012 Assignment • Variations in definitions. • Is health care measuring private or public sector? Measured in GDP? • What is the variable not telling you? Understanding population change • Demographic transition model: from pre to post industrial society o Transition from HBR and HDR to low birth rate and death rate o We see there is a reflection of the change on the natural increase o The transition is from low/no growth to low/no growth o The model doesn’t suggest that the birth rates increased over time o Much easier to change the death rate than the birth rate; prolonging life is much easier than preventing life and more favourable Applicability of this model • Is transition possible? YES. Because other countries have gone through it; it is based on the western European principle; NA and parts of Asia have gone through it • How long does it take? If you want to achieve population stability and this is the model we use, how long will it take? The time period is not well defined though • Significance of technology transfer? Western world first went through industrialization first and developed the framework of industrialization and there is the idea that this can transfer and if we apply them to other parts of the world, we can achieve our goal • Access to technology, to markets, fair trade? North America is an outlet of Europe and the transfer of technology is fairly simple. But you don’t see the same level of transfer taking place in other countries in the world in the developing world. The cost of technology is fairly high especially for developing countries. Free trade is not the same as fair trade; focused more on opening markets than allowing the markets to compete in a fair way- fair trade limits the developing countries economic development • Incomplete transitions? Declining birth and death rates but nothing happening after that Negative aspects • Environment issues: with economic development, there is an increase in consumption [fewer people but greater levels of consumption]. So is there any gain in this? More consumption has more environmental stress. We measure our success in our consumption [houses, cars, tv’s, etc] • Fewer people, but more strain on the resources • There isn’t an end in this model Different views on population growth • Economic view o Population growth is seen as positive because with population growth, you get more people, which gives rise to more labour, more production, more consumption- circular component which impacts prices o There is a stimulus which drives economic development in an economy o No limits; only limit is to develop technology quickly enough • Environmental view o There are limits to resources o Population growth but we must be aware that population depends on energy and water resources o “carrying capacity” and its limits o With this increased population, we threaten the resources and their sustainability and even renewable resources can be threatened by population growth o Sees population growth as negative Malthus • He was English an economist and he was a clergyman o He grew up in a society undergoing rapid industrialization and he saw a lot of deprivation and high death rates o He makes these associations with his economic background o His views of humanity are shaped by his religion • Population/food supply equation: Once you get a gap in food supply and population growth, you must be very aware because people may die because of starvation, warfare over resources, etc. population growth is going to be determined by food supply; they must grow at the same rate • Technology: he didn’t recognize that technology could change carrying capacity • Socio-cultural opinions: Malthus had a dim view of population; saw population growth as a biological mechanism [anamalistic] and he saw there was no way of constraining this because we “have no moral constraint or control” Bose
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