GGR124H1: October 17 Lecture: Urban Citizenship and City Culture
How is belonging created?
Thee all have geographic reference
Two models of human interaction (Tonnies)- conceptualized human interaction
based on the continuum of polar extremes.
A sense of community based on he family
relationships of trust nd caring networks
informal through social norms
As urbanization took place, interaction became more formal- undesirable-
direct response to modern urbanized capitalist society
Short lived, superficial interaction.
People bound thorough institutions
Controls made through codes and laws
The rural as a scale facilitates increased community
Urbanism Way of Life (Wirth)
Three Attributes of urbanization
1. Urban spaces have increased numbers of people
2. As number increases, population density increases
3. Then likely to have more heterogenerity. (difference)
Urbanism: an inevitable way of life that is a consequence of urbanization
These processes influence individuals and society
People feel more alientated from society- weakens support systems, weakens
social norms and culture.
Habitus and Social Capital
Pierre Bordieu’s Habitus: the capacity for humans to improvise in structured
situations through the body
Social groups share models of identification from others
Naturalizations make language powerful
Creates Social Capital – implies that social network will have economic
benefits as well. Pays to be a part of a community (ex: networking through work) it has real implication into how a community will translate into
economic capital. Also involves an element of truth between people.
Ex: Higher divorce rates, fewer children- affects community life.
Understanding why people live in certain places and why they choose to live
in certain areas of the city
A transformation of a working class or central city location into an upper or
middle class neighborhood.
1. Requires the displacement of lower income groups who can no longer
afford to live in this neighborhood- often imply immigrants or Racialized
2. Usually includes a class identifier (ex: white middle class residents who