Urb Lec 5
- Industrialization played a key role in the spatial organization of the city,
Industrial city situated in a location because of resources,
- Gave rise to a distinct system of social classes -> Industrialization,
- Industrialization prompted innovation and technology, so we began to see the
creation of the suburbs, and the reorganization of land use.
> Critical information in answering Industrialization questions
- Migration of manufacturing facilities southbound into the sunbelt,
transportation began to connect areas in the United States, we then begin to
see the decline of manufacturing through layoffs due to new forms of automated
- Creation of the global economy freed up trade, allowed for goods to be
produced elsewhere in the world.
- Outsourcing was possible because of the availability of transportation
- Freer movement of trade through agreements, allowed for the emergence of
economic processing zones= tax free, cheap labour.
- Shift towards a service based economy led to many cities becoming de-
- Outcomes of this shift vary, most cities were similar, flight of urban jobs,
longtime mass unemployment, decline in urban population.
- Repercussions on public city funds> less taxation therefore less funds to invest
in public/social services...leading to poverty which leads to violence> due to
the lack of law enforcement.
- Companies begin to fund medicare/pension> unemployment= loss of these
- When markets are being saturated you have loss of markets because of
competition, congestion leads to the loss of jobs causing ripple effects into
related and other industries, shrinking tax base and a deteriorating city.
• Decline of manufacturing sector in North America and Europe
• Impacts varied
• Cause: emergence of sunbelt
New Flexible Systems of Production
• Economies of scale
• Mass production
• Product standardization • Assembly line
• Mass consumption
• Blue-collar worker
• Unions and benefits
• Economies of scope
• Small-batch production
• Flexible specialization
• Information technologies • Niche markets • White-collar worker
• The feminization of the work force
Movement into Post-Fordism > similar to a de-industrialized city
- Fordism is a system of mass production, mass consumption, comparable to
the early to mid 1900s (similar to industrialization)
- Movement from small scale production to mass production, creating
economies of scale and reducing per unit costs.
- Creates standardized commodities/manufacturing process...leading to the
creation of the assembly line.
- Assembly process increased labour productivity and decreased cost of
production and sales.
- Standardized manufacturing by mass means, so the cost was affordable but
the goods were all the same, so it was all mechanized causing mass
consumption, not much differentiation between goods.
By the end of WWII, changes in production began rapidly, people didn't want to
consume the same products as everyone else, Mass markets began to become
Since generic commodities were no longer wanted, companies had to invest in
new technologies, Japan and America were leaders in this, smaller batches of
more diverse goods made by more intelligent machinery = flexible
Post-Fordism led to less people working in factories and more people working
on creating these innovative technologies.
Post-Fordism - less jobs that are unionized, stable and
Feminization of the work force is taking place (implies the conditions women
have survived in for years)
Political Economy - Politics will always play a role in steering the economy,
Early 1970s - Intense period of political/economic activity, paved the way for neo-liberalism
Neo-Fordist Urban Restructuring
• 1973 – Arab-Israeli War, embargo on oil, Oil Crisis and rise in oil prices rise
• US experiences stagflation
• Economic Stagnation – no growth in jobs orwages
• Inflation – Interest rates rise, debts rise
• Keynesian shift to Neoliberalism • Roll-back Neoliberalism
• Roll-out Neoliberalism
Structural problems in the states and inflation on oil costs resulted in stagflation
- started the increase in competition for cheaper goods produced overseas.
Emergence of production industries in newly developed/developing economy.
Repercussions of the recession created a shift from a welfare state to one of
less govt intervention.
Gave way for a new neo-liberal model, started in the US and UK/Europe, had
cascading effectings around the world on neoliberal policy,
Roll Back Neo Liberalism - Deregulation, govt no longer regulating
finance/industry, dismantling of public service (like social housing), Public
spaces were being privatized, cutbacks in welfare programs, cost of housing
increase social assisstance decrease, curbing of unions, reduced money for
infrastructure, overall shedding of the role of govt as regulators.
Roll Out Neo Liberalism - things ae being created like free trade
zones/agreements, govt services are privatized, public/private relationships are
more of a norm, broad effects on the global econ,
Create a market oriented space for econ growth especially for elite consumption
- Purpose of Neoliberalizing the Urban
Roll out and roll back restructing the city, shift in the mode of production from
fordism to post fordism, urban econs changed rapidly with the use of
production/transaction and circulation process technologies, Neo-Fordist Economic Restructuring, Informational Cities
• Effects of Neo-Fordist Economic Changes: COMPUTERS!
Production Processes: computerized assembly lines
Transaction processes: inventory, credit cards,
Circulation processes: fibre optics, internet, blackberries
• Economic Relations change Social Relations
Worker and Boss