Urb Week 9
Migration - Movement from one place to another.
Globalization - Increasing connectedness between places, the increasing movement of people due to
Generally settler nations - where most people settle, areas of settlement are still concentrated, regardless
of increased movement of people.
Diverse Migration patterns
People are moving for work, asylum, business class, family reunification.
Migration is transnational
People are moving to areas where they can maintain their ethnicity/culture, still connected to their home
country. Settling in a way that isn't just about one place, people are connected to multiple places. These
places become more connected as a result.
The State and International Migration
Promote out migration - Push -Repressive government, Weak economy, Social Institutions are weak,
Attract Migrants - Pull - Economic opportunity, Safety/Freedom, Social Institutions.
Why settle in the city - Social Capital (having resources within the community, networks) Housing
market, higher job availability.
Economy is a main determinant in migration - For Canada
- Race Restriction/European Selection - Would be able to better assimilate/apart of the dominant culture.
- Exclusionary policies (Chines Head Tax = Pay to enter Canada from 50-500, Continuous Journey =
Indians had to make a nonstop journey to enter Canada)
- Market forces determine migration - Tap ON/Tap OFF - Open the doors when the economy is good, but
close the doors to immigration when the economy is bad.
!! - Changed the face of Canada - Universal Selection System - 1967 - From race base to skill base,
changes the ethno-composition of Canadians. Went from a white society to a diverse society.
ImmigrationAct - 1976 - Points system and four classes of migrants.
Business Program - 1978 - Entrepreneurs and Investors. Some people can bypass the immigration system
if they have the right amount of money, Either by making a company that employs Canadians or Invest in
Immigrant and Refugee ProtectionAct - 2001 - Promoting 'good' economic immigrants while cracking
down on 'others' - Promotes economic immigrants and penalizes refugees if they are suspicious of
criminal activity. Majority of the individuals coming to Canada, migrate as skilled workers.
Who Qualifies ?
Selection Factor - Points:
Education - 25
Proficiency in English/French - 24
Experience - 21
Age - 10
Arranged Employment in Canada - 10
Total - 100
Pass Mark - 67
The system is very classist, discriminatory, inadvertently racist = Canada's system
Who's Settling ?
Majority of people migrating to Canada before 1971 were European, but by 2006 the Majority are from
Place of Urban Residence
- Immigrants are more likely to reside in cities, specifically Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal, Canadian-
borns are more likely to reside elsewhere.
Modes of Incorporation
Assimilation - Best described by the concentric zone
Assimilation - Processes by which immigrants acquire