Urbanization - Lecture 3
Urban Geography’s History of Change
Used what happens in nature/systems to liken what happens in the city - human
ecology approach - Park and Burgess - 1920s
Regional tradition - looking at a single city, case study - city by city - 1950s
Spatial analysis approach - privileged numbers/stats, heightened by availability
of comp, algorithms, software, quantitative method. Limited only used numbers,
no connection to people - 1960s
Behavioral approach - looking at peoples behaviour vs. Humanistic approach-
no numbers/data, limited to the meanings and feelings of the people/city - 1970s
Structuralist approach - capitalist perspective, research based on that. - 1980s
people had various backgrounds, not just between men/women, but immigrants,
children, etc. - 1990s
Poststructuralist approach - power does not come from structure, it is created by
us, give power or create power. - 1990s
Amalgamation of all approaches is now accepted. 2000s
Urban Timeline 1815-2015
Mercantile City/Early Industrial/Industrial/(Suburban)/(Sprawl)/Postindustrial
1815 1865 1920 1980
A lot of these perspectives come from European thinkers, majority of the
schools are based in North America.
Understanding Urban Form
Pre- Industrial city - The Mercantile City - 1790-1840 - Model for much of North
American cities, cities began to build an American identity, rural>Urban
Migration + International Migration. Lack of transportation was critical to the
organization of the city.
Pedestrian city, compact city with distinct land use patterns, little separation
between work and home and rich and poor.
- Historical and economic contexts influence spatial organization
- The Pedestrian City
- Central core with residences for social elite
periphery of city
The (Early) Industrializing City - Industrial technology and methods of industrial and commercial organization
- Agricultural mechanization
- Rural to urban migration
- International migration
- Land use competition - No zoning laws so development is haphazard
- Land speculation begins
- Buy property, sell some of it, keep the rest of it undeveloped until
prices go up, then sell land at an inflated cost
- Specialization of land use
- Generalized housing market
- Network infrastructures + transportation networks
- Centrifugal Movement: To the outskirts for affluent families of white collar
- Centripetal Movement: To the centre for industries that benefit from
- Hierarchy came into prominence more, farmers could produce more yield for
more people, however, rural dwellers increased in unemployment.
- Cities increased/ rural unemployment in Europe increased and Immigration to
- Produced/created a division of social classes.
- Social classes created segregation, pollution was heavy/waste in water -
caused elite to move out of the cities.
- No beautification process/ majority of the land was for commercial use.
- Lack of transport, land ownership tied to economic resource not citizenship.
- Child labour, crammed living conditions, poor health, urban land was
specialized, ability to purchase urban land created competition, land near
water was significant.
- Employers built housing for their workers in Post Industrial, in Industrial city
people had to pay part of their wages for crammed lodging.
Network, electricity, transportation was seen more, Growth in transportation
- "local variabilities within the general context of the city"