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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Global Urbanization

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University of Toronto St. George
Deborah Cowen

Tuesday, September 28, Reading Chapter 3 Le Corbusier technology made it possible to provide a sanitary urban environment while preserving the high-density characteristic of the European cities of the time. His formula, Tower in the Park, consisted of high-rise-buildings erected at a distance from each other to allow for ample green space at ground level. Duanys, New Urbanism model calls for a return to the layout and appearance of the traditional small town, with houses built close to the sidewalk, a gridiron lay-out and a main commercial street. The model de-emphasizes the presence of the scar, in large part by relegating garages to back lanes. Urban change is emphasized also by post-modernist scholars attempting to identify new urban trajectories. Dear and Flusty, for example describe how space within the post-modern metropolis has become hyper-specialized, causing disconnection between some urban sectors. Jane Jacobs, in the early 1960s, she convincingly demonstrated that traditional inner city neighbourhoods (at that time such neighbourhoods often were targeted for urban renewal) encouraged the formation of intense community ties- in sharp contrast to the social desolation of some projects inspired by the tower in the Park model. Nothing is set in society: For example, even the best programs in the best universities are of the constant revisions. The ubiquity of change in human affairs is illustrated by the fashion and design industries, where transformations are not the outcome of any ameliorative purpose but rather the reflection of desire for stimulation and for creativity. Shifting values also have had profound societal impacts in heightened individualism and acceptance or tolerance towards a wider spectrum of lifestyles. Evidently, the economy also has played a profound role in the transformation of society. Demography is another factor of change. Since World War II, the maturing of the baby boom generation has dominated the demographic scene, forcing institutional and economic adjustment along the way. The concept of path dependence has been invoked to account for their stability.
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