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GGR206H1 (3)


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Jennifer Harris

Notes GGR206H1 Chapter 1 Summary  Physical Hydrology: Movement and physical properties of water on and below the Earth’s surface (without ocean currents)  Water Table: Water from the ground rises to the pit  Saturated zone: below water table  Ground water: water stored under saturated zone  Unsaturated zone: below land pores of soil contains water and air  Soil water: water under unsaturated zone  2.5% of all available water is fresh water: 69% polar ice, 30% ground and 1% surface water, soil water and atmospheric water  Greenhouse gas: atmosphere and most important in establishing Earth’s climate  Greenhouse gases with water vapour (H20) carbon dioxide allows the Earth’s warming to pass through shortwave radiation but absorb longwaves through radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface. Effectively sets the air temperature to 15 degrees Celsius: greenhouse effect  Enhanced greenhouse effect: out of control warming of the Earth  Evaporation: change of liquid water to gas  Evaporation of the ocean; leaving salts in the ocean causing water vapour, cloud droplets and precipitation  Many scientists believe global warming is speeding up the hydrological cycle  Drainage basin/catchment: geographical area drains into a river  Precipitation: process which liquid or solid falls onto the Earth  Channel precipitation: precipitation that falls directly to a river/stream  Interception: process vegetation/buildings intercept rainfall  Gross precipitation: total precipitation falling on the canopy of a tree  Throughfall: consists of raindrops that fall through the branches  Stemflow: rainfall that runs down the main stem of the tree  Infiltration: precipitation that trickles down cracks of rock, soil or sediment  Percolation: unsaturated zone water may move down to ground water  Interception loss: precipitation that is intercepted by buildings and vegetation  Surface storage: rain that is kept on land snow or ice  Water balance equation: In = Out + S  In and Out > 0  S can be positive, zero or negative  S > 0 positive; increase in water storage  S < 0 negative; decrease in water storage  S = 0 long term average  Hydrological year: duration one year and starts and ends with the dry season  Land-use and climate change scenarios: estimate effects Lecture 3  Average resident time: water vapour in calculated in days  Persistence: either wet/dry conditions on seasonal timescale caused soil moisture-precipitation feedback  Newton: 1 N = 1 kg*m*s-1  Pressure: defined as force over an area  Air pressure: force exerted on
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