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Lecture 3

GGR221 Week 3.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR221H1
Professor
Deborah Leslie
Semester
Winter

Description
GGR221 Week 3 Lecture Summary Big Questions: ­ How to explain evolution of industries over time ­ How to explain where industries are located Kondratieff/ Long Waves ­ each wave ~40­60 years ­ Waves characterized by ~25 year period of growth, ~25 years of  stagnation/decline o Decline of profitable industry prompts technological innovation to revive  profits ­ Freeman & Perez characterize growth with o Dominant Industries o Sunrise industries o New Technologies/ production techniques o Key entrepreneurs Five Long Wave Industries  ­ Industrial Revolution, 1785­1842 o Dominant industries: textile, iron, pottery o Sunrise: steam engines, machinery o Technologies: Water power o Entrepreneur: Arkwright water frame ­ Victorian Boom, 1842­1897 o Dominant: coal, iron, machine tools, railway equipment o Sunrise: engineering o Technology: coal powered steam engines o Entrepreneur: Stephenson’s locomotive ­ Imperialist Boom, 1897­1940 o Dominant: electrical engineering, cable & wire, steel o Sunrise: automobiles, aircrafts, aluminum, construction durables o Technologies: electrical machinery, internal combustion engine, overhead  cranes, power tools, standardization o Entrepreneurs: Krupp ­ Golden Age of Fordism 1945­1995 o Dominant: Transportation vehicles, consumer durables, synthetic material,  petrochemicals o Sunrise: computers, NC machine tools, militar
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