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lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Laydon

Lecture 4 - October 4 - Ecology, Exploration, and Empire Key points from last week 1. Theories of migration over the Bering Land Bridge, the consensus evidence of Clovis Culture, and challenges to this consensus 2. The connections between this ‘deep past’and the present, particularly with respect to the ‘geography of race’(e.g. Kennewick Man as ‘Caucasoid’) 3. The settlement of theArctic by the Tuniit (Dorset), and the reasons for their disappearance, including the arrival of the Inuit (Thule) 4. The human geography of NorthAmerica approximately 1000 years ago (and some of the specific details from the Southwest – the subject of the second NY Times article) ----------------------------------- Contacts, Collisions, and Relationships 1. Contacts: - Short, even superficial, but often hugely important first meetings - Many were unanticipated, others were preceded by some form of awareness (hearsay or physical evidence of the other) - Strong ceremonial quality – communications gaps (General contacts that were completely different, many of this meeting very peacefull, but not for long) 2. Collisions: -Ashift from peace to war - Often depicted by Europeans as a reflection of indigenous treachery - But the most important source of conflict was the seizure of land by Europeans - It is also possible to consider the effects of disease as a form of collision (ecological imperialism) (On a global scale, where human come from different parts of the world into contact with one another, in North America especially deseaces killed many more people. Majority population dying.) 3. Relationships: - Rested largely on commerce or religion – European traders and missionaries, and their indigenous contacts (relationships that were based on exchange of goods) - Relationships are by definition reciprocal, if not always even – and they may have led to collisions in adjoining territories or with neighbouring groups - Over time, relationships also led to acculturation: new, composite cultures (or the gradual loss of cultures) (The exchange of goods and practises that is being shared, effects both cultures, closer together, whats happening is two cultures blending together to form a new type of culture. Limits to this three-part model (Contacts, Collisions, Relationships) - These are not exclusive or all encompassing categories (the first time I meet you, doesn’t have to be peacefull, it can get violent) - For example, trade spread disease (how can we accanut for the spread of decease) - In particular, the mo
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