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Lecture 6

lecture 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Laydon

Lecture 6 - October 18 Transnational Racism Key points from last week 1. Towns as nodes in the Spanish Empire (established well before French and English colonies) 2. Martin Frobisher’s failed gold mine, and his role in the British claim to northern North America 3. The geographical evolution of, and the importance of, the fur trade 4. The Staples Thesis (Harold Innis) and the ‘staple regions’of the British commercial empire in theAtlantic 5. Land as a commodity, divided and managed by colonial administrations through surveys and cadastral maps The foundations of slavery in theAmericas • Human slavery has existed length ofAmericas for the recorded history • What distinguishes theAtlantic Slave Trade? 1. Its unprecedented, monstrous scale (11 million people sent across atlantic) th 2. Its connection to modernity and the Enlightenment (scientific racism, environmental determinism) 19 century, great age of rights of the men, which was also accompanied by slave trade. So WHY? 3. Its crucial role in the colonization of theAmericas - Maritime technology and imperial ambitions to explore the ocean and claim land. So in 14 and 15 century it becomes a highway to bring resource and enriching the emprial state. : a replica of the Nina, one of Columbus’s ships - Birth of the conquistadors: The end of the Reconquista at Granada, 1492 (Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, Capitulación de Granada [1882]) Portuguese sailors first made contact with theAfrican slave trade in the mid-15th century, probably along the coast of what is now Mauritania Stepping stones for colonialism: TheAzores, Madeira, and the Canary slands (These are still spanish island, and the Canary is the portugese, So this island provided good resources for trees and as well as fishing. The Guanche kings of Tenerife (Canary Islands) surrender to the Spanish conquistador JavierAlonso Luis Fernández de Lugo, 1496 (It was a group of people who left Africa and later were conquered and slaved to work in the plantations. After the deceases and so on, they were vanished) ( So Canary people were sort of the beginning of the slavery, that later would take place in New world) The plantation • Although it has precedents in the Roman latifundia (large farms), in the late 15th and early 16th century the plantation was a new landscape, a new mode of production • Put simply, a plantation was a large tract of privately-owned land worked by many slaves to produce a high-value commodity for export to an external market (It became crucial to development of capitalism it self. - The colonial transformation of Hispaniola • The island was quickly and aggressively modified by the Spanish. (New crops, new animals, so the environment can sustain it self, so to ship it back , you need valuable commodity to be produced) • The conquest of nature and culture were concurrent: the indigenous population went from some 300,000 in 1492 to 500 in 1548 (Unintentional genocide) • They died from disease, but also from the brutal working conditions in colonial mines and on plantations. • West African slaves first arrived in 1518 - The huge proportion of the transfer from Atlantic Trade, 80% were slaves. Characteristics of slavery in theAmericas 1. The use of mass labour in specialized agricultural or mineral production for export 2. The exploitation of this labour as a commodity to be used up and replaced by purchase (when as slave died buy another one) 3. An extensive
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