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lecture 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Laydon

Lecture 5 - October 11 The Construction of Colonies Key points from last week 1. The categories of contacts, collisions, and relationships as a way of describing early encounters between Europeans and indigenous NorthAmericans – their usefulness and their limits 2. Columbus, ‘cannibals’and the idea of Linguistic Colonialism: language as both a tool of colonization (renaming, demonizing) and a ‘gift’to those colonized (civilizing) 3. Cultural representations as key sources in historical geography: mapping and depictingAmerica (including Jan van der Straet’s “America” [c. 1600]) 4. North American in the late 15th century: not a “terrestrial paradise” (Denevan) 5. The idea of Ecological Imperialism: an environmental revolution which worked disproportionately in favour of Europeans Imperialism • Perhaps best used as a generic term, to refer to a type of geopolitical relationship: “the aggressive encroachment of one people upon the territory of another, resulting in the subjugation of the latter people to alien rule.” ( The result of this subjugaton is the colonization. You build an empire through the process of colonization. - Donald W. Meinig, The Shaping of America, v. 1 (1986), xviii TheAtlantic Circuit (one representation ) Which is set from the time of columbus, varies passage points. bound by four continents. It all applies to coastal activity. Big hope of realising this big trade, was to bring a new force of labour to work the land, or the ocean , etc. Colonialism is a story of settlement in NorthAmerica. The spanish were ahead of all the others. Settling and establishing bases. Columbus 2 voyage was the voyage of Conquest. The spanish Empire in theAmericans early 17 century, had the most widest and biggest, riches empire. Stretching from California down to Chile, was all belonged to Spain (Viceroyality of New Spain) Into the heart of theAztec Empire; Hernando Cortes in Mexico, in 1519 leads a conquest. Many languages,millions of people,resided in there and an impire that held slaves for labour. -> Which was all later exploited by the Spanish. Also, the desease brought by them has rapidly destroyed the population ofAztecs and also guns and horses, aided the conquest. Spanish colonial urbanism: Santo Domingo, 1671 ( rectangular grid plan with central plaza or cathedral) - This towns landscapes become great simbols of colonialism. ‘New’Spain • Anew settlement geography (colonial towns) • Anew category of ‘population’(mestizos - mixed indiginous and spanish people ) • Anew labour system (encomienda, - to entrust - rulled over by an colonial spanish settler, who would manage on his likelyhood land, it is not quiet slavery, but a new system of labour. New calendars, new language, all of this seem significant, -> the arm of spain is long. The spanish fought in the 15 century to be powerfull, but they could not control everything) You cannot simply re-create europe in Mexico. There is some sort of resistance, difference. - But while the arm of Spain was long, it could not control everything, particularly at the scale of daily life Focal Points for Regional Colonial Societies • Quebec (town) [French], Santa Fe [Spanish], and Jamestown [English] were founded within a few years of one another in the early 17th century ( WERE all founded in about the same years) • Despite this similarity, they were expressions of completely different colonial histories • The English and French were still struggling to establish a foothold in North America, whereas Santa Fe was merely one of hundreds of Spanish towns (Spanish were leading the charge ofAmerica) Martin Frobisher (c. 1535- 1594) • Led the first attempt by the English to establish a settlement in NorthAmerica, the first step in the eventual British claim to sovereignty over much the continent. (Three voyages: 1576-78) ( He wa
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