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Lecture 7

ggr240 - lecture 7.pdf

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR240H1
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all

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GGR240  –  Lecture  7 Railroads  and  the  Rese▯lement  of  the  West Key  points  from  last  week • Origins  of  Atlan▯c  slave  trade  –  especially  in  Portuguese  and  Spanish  coloniza▯on  and   transforma▯on  of  Canary  islands  (planta▯ons)  –  and  scale  of  the  system • Race  and  class  in  English  tobacco  colony  of  Virginia • Transforma▯on  of  Barbados  into  ‘sugar  island’  with  majority  slave  popula▯on  working  under  brutal   condi▯ons • Black  Atlan▯c  as  a  transna▯onal  cultural  network,  forged  ini▯ally  through  slavery,  but  s▯ll   meaningful  today • Aboli▯on  and  revolu▯on:  Hai▯  and  new  no▯ons  of  human  freedom • Land  as  commodity,  divided  and  managed  by  colonial  administra▯ons  through  surveys  and  cadastral   maps Lecture  Outline 1. Dispossession  and  rese▯lement 2. Surveying  for  Op▯miza▯on:  John  Wesley  Powell  in  the  Arid  West 3. “Iron  Civilizers:  railroad  ▯me  and  space 4. Transforming  Canada’s  interior 5. Inland  empire:  Chicago,  Rail,  and  the  west 6. The  fron▯er  thesis:  Frederick  Jackson  Turner  looks  West Bri▯sh  Columbia  around  1871 • Colonialism    was  expressed  in  a  reserve  system • Confined  Aboriginal  people  and  opened  the  rest  of  the  land  for  coloniza▯on • They  were  in  the  way,  their  land  was  coveted,  so  se▯lers  took  it • th By  early  20  century,  1500  reserves  comprised    1/3  of  1%  of  the  province • The  lines  that  divided  reserves  from  rest  of  BC  became  most  important  lines  on  maps  of  BC GGR240  –  Lecture  7 • Not  just  an  example  of  racist  colonial  ideals -­‐the  root  is  story  of  dispossession  –  taking  land  away • Sites  where  colonialism  was  actually  prac▯ced    -­‐  is  where  you  can  see  its  effects • Before,  trade  did  not  require  a  lot  of  land th • Over  the  19  century    ‘na▯ve  space’  gradually  changed  into  a  place  of  Bri▯sh  Sovereignty -­‐what  was  originally  based  on  rela▯onship  of  trade,  changed  to  control  of  land • Once  you  take  land  away  from  people.  You  have  to  put  them  somewhere • This  was  a  violent  process • New  se▯lers  believed  aboriginals  did  not  use  their  land  properly/efficiently • *Harris  ar▯cle • The  average  immigrant  to  BC  was  not  coming  to  civilize  aboriginals,  they  were  coming  for  the  land -­‐cheap,  unused  land  into  which  se▯lers  could  arrive  and  claim • Role  of  maps  at  this  ▯me? -­‐maps  were  tools  in  the  process  of  claiming  land -­‐a  map  alone  is  some▯mes  enough  to  give  preemp▯ve  control  over  the  land  it  depicts -­‐wri▯en  descrip▯on  alongside  image  becomes  an  applica▯on  to  take  land  from  one  group  and  assign   it  to  another • Reserves  as  bureaucra▯c  spaces -­‐they  were  mapped,    given  names,  sizes,  acreage -­‐you  could  locate  the  reserve  in  books • The  maps  start  to  define  where  you  could/could  not  live/go • Aboriginals  try  to  do  what  they  can  to  prolong  rese▯lement John  Wesley  Powell • In  1869  led  the  Powell  Geographic  Expedi▯on  from  Green  River  Crossing,  Wyoming,  down  the  Green   and  Colorado  Rivers  and  through  the  Grand  Canyon • This  was  the  last  unmapped  region  in  the  US • Bridge  over  the  river  is  the  first  transcon▯nental  railway • His  solu▯on  to  the  empty  spaces  of  the  west  was  to  define  boundaries GGR240  –  Lecture  7 • Proposed  classifica▯on  scheme  to  depict  what  the  land  looked  like -­‐introducing  environmental  element  to  federal  policy • Idea  of  defining  is  part  of  dispossession • He  was  also  an  ethnologist,  fascinated  by  aboriginal  encounters • He  saw  the  way  they  were  living  on  the  land,  contradictory  to  nature  and  idea  of  value  in  the  west -­‐lacking  efficiency,  value,  order • Through  mapping  the  Grand  Canyon,  he  is  making  the  territory  real • Map  of  a  region  can  lead  to  map  of  appropriate  land  use • Evidence  of  deforesta▯on  by  forest  fires,  which  can  be  solved  through  be▯er  management  of  the   land -­‐“the  fires  are  set  by  Indians,  they  resort  to  higher  regions  because  they  are  driven  from  low-­‐lands   by  advancing  civiliza▯on.  the  fires  can  be  greatly  curtailed  by  removal  of  Indians” -­‐“once  protected  from  fires,  the  forests  can  become  VALUABLE  …  to  build  agriculture,   manufacturing,  railways”  (land  use  through  se▯lement,  advance  of  civiliza▯on) • By  se▯ng  limita▯ons  on  what  the  displaced  aboriginals  can  or  can’t  do,  we  can  up  the  value  of  land • Shows  that  violence  is  necessary  for  new  geographies  in  colonial  North  America th • In  19  century  many  North  Americans’  lives  are  being  changed  by  new  technology • New  dependence  on  coal,  steel,  fossil  fuels  to  produce  energy • The  first  modern  locomo▯ve  –  Stephenson’s  Rocket  (build  in  England,  1829) • Trains  provide  faster  transporta▯on -­‐called  “Iron  Civilizers”  –  compared  them  to  the  prin▯ng  press  and  its  effect  on  the  human  mind The  Railroading  of  Canada • At  confedera▯onin1867,  Canada  had  just  over  2000  miles  of  track,  mostly  in  Ontario • 25  years  later  there  were  almost14000  main-­‐line  miles  of  track,  and  railroads  spanned  the  con▯nent • These  were  products  of  a  growing  industrial  system • Produced  a  mass  increase  of  industry  and  manufacturing GGR240  –  Lecture  7 • Leads  to  reach  of  ideas  and  business  in  different  ways • By  1870s,  half  of  the  newspapers  sold  outside  of  Toronto,  thanks  to  trains • Demonstrate  humanity’s  growing  power  over  nature Telegraphs • Laid  across  Atlan▯c  on  the  eve  of  Confedera▯on • “this  is  indeed  the  annihila▯on  of  space” • Telegraph  lines  ran  along  railway  tracks • The  more  capitalism  can  increase  speed  and  reach,    and  shrink  space  and  ▯me,  the  more  it  can   flourish • Railroads  created  first  stock  markets,  first  shares  were  in  railroads • Sanford  Fleming  –  in  late  1870s  proposed  idea  of  standard  ▯me  zones • Ra▯onalize  ▯me  table  and  long-­‐distance  communica▯on Railroad  Time  and  Space • Represented  radical  break  with  physical  geography  –  limi▯ng  effects  of  weather  and  terrain,  crea▯ng   new  representa▯ons  of  space  and  distance  (including  from  inside  a  rail-­‐car) • Altered  percep▯ons  of  ▯me  –  seasonal  ▯me,  even  daily  ▯me • Seemed  to  simplify  the  complexi▯es  of  the  world,  regula▯ng  travel  and  promo▯ng  specialized   economies • Ability  to  market  your  product  to  a  wider  range  of  people • If  you  were  rich  enough  to  afford  a  train  ride,  your  percep▯on  and  rela▯onship  to  surroundings   change -­‐par▯cipant  (walking,  horse)  to  a  spectator  (si▯ng  in  a  seat  looking  out  a  window) Time  Space  Compression • “Process  that  so  revolu▯onizes
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