Class Notes (839,573)
Canada (511,407)
Geography (975)
GGR240H1 (36)
all (7)
Lecture 7

ggr240 - lecture 7.pdf

8 Pages

Course Code

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
GGR240  –  Lecture  7 Railroads  and  the  Rese▯lement  of  the  West Key  points  from  last  week • Origins  of  Atlan▯c  slave  trade  –  especially  in  Portuguese  and  Spanish  coloniza▯on  and   transforma▯on  of  Canary  islands  (planta▯ons)  –  and  scale  of  the  system • Race  and  class  in  English  tobacco  colony  of  Virginia • Transforma▯on  of  Barbados  into  ‘sugar  island’  with  majority  slave  popula▯on  working  under  brutal   condi▯ons • Black  Atlan▯c  as  a  transna▯onal  cultural  network,  forged  ini▯ally  through  slavery,  but  s▯ll   meaningful  today • Aboli▯on  and  revolu▯on:  Hai▯  and  new  no▯ons  of  human  freedom • Land  as  commodity,  divided  and  managed  by  colonial  administra▯ons  through  surveys  and  cadastral   maps Lecture  Outline 1. Dispossession  and  rese▯lement 2. Surveying  for  Op▯miza▯on:  John  Wesley  Powell  in  the  Arid  West 3. “Iron  Civilizers:  railroad  ▯me  and  space 4. Transforming  Canada’s  interior 5. Inland  empire:  Chicago,  Rail,  and  the  west 6. The  fron▯er  thesis:  Frederick  Jackson  Turner  looks  West Bri▯sh  Columbia  around  1871 • Colonialism    was  expressed  in  a  reserve  system • Confined  Aboriginal  people  and  opened  the  rest  of  the  land  for  coloniza▯on • They  were  in  the  way,  their  land  was  coveted,  so  se▯lers  took  it • th By  early  20  century,  1500  reserves  comprised    1/3  of  1%  of  the  province • The  lines  that  divided  reserves  from  rest  of  BC  became  most  important  lines  on  maps  of  BC GGR240  –  Lecture  7 • Not  just  an  example  of  racist  colonial  ideals -­‐the  root  is  story  of  dispossession  –  taking  land  away • Sites  where  colonialism  was  actually  prac▯ced    -­‐  is  where  you  can  see  its  effects • Before,  trade  did  not  require  a  lot  of  land th • Over  the  19  century    ‘na▯ve  space’  gradually  changed  into  a  place  of  Bri▯sh  Sovereignty -­‐what  was  originally  based  on  rela▯onship  of  trade,  changed  to  control  of  land • Once  you  take  land  away  from  people.  You  have  to  put  them  somewhere • This  was  a  violent  process • New  se▯lers  believed  aboriginals  did  not  use  their  land  properly/efficiently • *Harris  ar▯cle • The  average  immigrant  to  BC  was  not  coming  to  civilize  aboriginals,  they  were  coming  for  the  land -­‐cheap,  unused  land  into  which  se▯lers  could  arrive  and  claim • Role  of  maps  at  this  ▯me? -­‐maps  were  tools  in  the  process  of  claiming  land -­‐a  map  alone  is  some▯mes  enough  to  give  preemp▯ve  control  over  the  land  it  depicts -­‐wri▯en  descrip▯on  alongside  image  becomes  an  applica▯on  to  take  land  from  one  group  and  assign   it  to  another • Reserves  as  bureaucra▯c  spaces -­‐they  were  mapped,    given  names,  sizes,  acreage -­‐you  could  locate  the  reserve  in  books • The  maps  start  to  define  where  you  could/could  not  live/go • Aboriginals  try  to  do  what  they  can  to  prolong  rese▯lement John  Wesley  Powell • In  1869  led  the  Powell  Geographic  Expedi▯on  from  Green  River  Crossing,  Wyoming,  down  the  Green   and  Colorado  Rivers  and  through  the  Grand  Canyon • This  was  the  last  unmapped  region  in  the  US • Bridge  over  the  river  is  the  first  transcon▯nental  railway • His  solu▯on  to  the  empty  spaces  of  the  west  was  to  define  boundaries GGR240  –  Lecture  7 • Proposed  classifica▯on  scheme  to  depict  what  the  land  looked  like -­‐introducing  environmental  element  to  federal  policy • Idea  of  defining  is  part  of  dispossession • He  was  also  an  ethnologist,  fascinated  by  aboriginal  encounters • He  saw  the  way  they  were  living  on  the  land,  contradictory  to  nature  and  idea  of  value  in  the  west -­‐lacking  efficiency,  value,  order • Through  mapping  the  Grand  Canyon,  he  is  making  the  territory  real • Map  of  a  region  can  lead  to  map  of  appropriate  land  use • Evidence  of  deforesta▯on  by  forest  fires,  which  can  be  solved  through  be▯er  management  of  the   land -­‐“the  fires  are  set  by  Indians,  they  resort  to  higher  regions  because  they  are  driven  from  low-­‐lands   by  advancing  civiliza▯on.  the  fires  can  be  greatly  curtailed  by  removal  of  Indians” -­‐“once  protected  from  fires,  the  forests  can  become  VALUABLE  …  to  build  agriculture,   manufacturing,  railways”  (land  use  through  se▯lement,  advance  of  civiliza▯on) • By  se▯ng  limita▯ons  on  what  the  displaced  aboriginals  can  or  can’t  do,  we  can  up  the  value  of  land • Shows  that  violence  is  necessary  for  new  geographies  in  colonial  North  America th • In  19  century  many  North  Americans’  lives  are  being  changed  by  new  technology • New  dependence  on  coal,  steel,  fossil  fuels  to  produce  energy • The  first  modern  locomo▯ve  –  Stephenson’s  Rocket  (build  in  England,  1829) • Trains  provide  faster  transporta▯on -­‐called  “Iron  Civilizers”  –  compared  them  to  the  prin▯ng  press  and  its  effect  on  the  human  mind The  Railroading  of  Canada • At  confedera▯onin1867,  Canada  had  just  over  2000  miles  of  track,  mostly  in  Ontario • 25  years  later  there  were  almost14000  main-­‐line  miles  of  track,  and  railroads  spanned  the  con▯nent • These  were  products  of  a  growing  industrial  system • Produced  a  mass  increase  of  industry  and  manufacturing GGR240  –  Lecture  7 • Leads  to  reach  of  ideas  and  business  in  different  ways • By  1870s,  half  of  the  newspapers  sold  outside  of  Toronto,  thanks  to  trains • Demonstrate  humanity’s  growing  power  over  nature Telegraphs • Laid  across  Atlan▯c  on  the  eve  of  Confedera▯on • “this  is  indeed  the  annihila▯on  of  space” • Telegraph  lines  ran  along  railway  tracks • The  more  capitalism  can  increase  speed  and  reach,    and  shrink  space  and  ▯me,  the  more  it  can   flourish • Railroads  created  first  stock  markets,  first  shares  were  in  railroads • Sanford  Fleming  –  in  late  1870s  proposed  idea  of  standard  ▯me  zones • Ra▯onalize  ▯me  table  and  long-­‐distance  communica▯on Railroad  Time  and  Space • Represented  radical  break  with  physical  geography  –  limi▯ng  effects  of  weather  and  terrain,  crea▯ng   new  representa▯ons  of  space  and  distance  (including  from  inside  a  rail-­‐car) • Altered  percep▯ons  of  ▯me  –  seasonal  ▯me,  even  daily  ▯me • Seemed  to  simplify  the  complexi▯es  of  the  world,  regula▯ng  travel  and  promo▯ng  specialized   economies • Ability  to  market  your  product  to  a  wider  range  of  people • If  you  were  rich  enough  to  afford  a  train  ride,  your  percep▯on  and  rela▯onship  to  surroundings   change -­‐par▯cipant  (walking,  horse)  to  a  spectator  (si▯ng  in  a  seat  looking  out  a  window) Time  Space  Compression • “Process  that  so  revolu▯onizes
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.