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Lecture - Three.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Lewis

Lecture Three - Industrial Urbanization What was the social and economic impact of capitalist industrialization on the Western European city, 1750 - 1900?  Direct trajectory from the industrialization of the cities  Capitalist industrialization, The capitalist city, Glasgow industry and housing Capitalist Industrialization:  1650 to early 1800s, rural based, small units, city merchants proto-industrialization  Proto-industrialization: Steady growth towards complete industrialization (no steam engine) o Change in manufacturing process; use of hand labor NOT technology o Emergence of waged labor  In past creating material for own consumption BUT now you are making products which are being sold into the marketplace NOT household, creating capitalist market  Cities were still trade markets so not urban workers  City merchants provide capital and gain most of the profits making most of $ stay in the city from variable labor => global exporting = port cities increase (liverpool)  Change in work policies and mass exporting making industrialization possible Capitalization Industrialization  Rise of the UK and industrial prominence btw 1750 - 1880  Decrease of manufacturing output (crude/immature crafting) in China and India while UK and US major industrial manufacturing Time-space Compression: techn. innovation (transportation) 'annihilates space through time' (Harvey) = faster travel to places  Time horizons of public and private decision making have shrunk  Decisions are more quickly spread over a large territory o Information travels fast (not Harvey-thought)  Speeds up capitalist investment NOT the cause of industrialization Wealth, trade and investment: Warehouses (Manchester) and coffee shops (Paris) were nodes of trade, investment and wealth and formation  Proto: increase profit, income, wealth = creates a market for the manufacturing companies o If a problem does occur it happens in demand-supply Proletariat and a new power hierarchy  Disposable labor - sell labor power o Waged labor - no other option than to work with their body, little control over their work done, greater out# those the bourgeoisies  Class structure - based on industry o Proletariat, petty bourgeoisies (some control over workplace), bourgeoisies (owners)  Capitalist ideology - market individualism o People are individuals and their collective link is through the market o Social mobility possible (going from proletariat to bourgeoisies Science and Technology: innovation, industry, diffusion  Educational institutes allow for innovation Growing state control in urban affairs  Cities have greater interest in controlling urban and industrial growth o Diverting money to transporting for workers o Laws for land control  Central gov't made railroad and st. building possible Modern Circulation System  Canals open up the regional and national economics  6.5k km of canals by 1830s o Expanding consumer market: first modern transportation 1770s - 1880s (speeds up goods and cheapens)  Railroad extends the pttn. and the benefits o Link to major industrial centers esp. in Britain What sort of urban world does capitalist industrialization create? What are the common elements of modern urban industrialization in Europe? Characteristics of 1. Cities have specialized economies (ex. silks) Capitalist Cities 2. Most of the production was driven by factory-labor 3. Linked through transportation (ex. railroad) 4. Large scale population growth (rural to urban migration) 5. Most of cities taken up by housing land and diverse in housing (cause of class hierarchy) 6. Daily life revolved around factory 7. Evn't was extremely degraded - after WW2 it was noticed 8. Cities were heavily regulated esp. from the state o Law enforcements added The Capitalist City Large scale building plus industrialization =>
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